Module java.base

Class StampedLock

java.lang.Object
java.util.concurrent.locks.StampedLock
All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable

public class StampedLock
extends Object
implements Serializable
A capability-based lock with three modes for controlling read/write access. The state of a StampedLock consists of a version and mode. Lock acquisition methods return a stamp that represents and controls access with respect to a lock state; "try" versions of these methods may instead return the special value zero to represent failure to acquire access. Lock release and conversion methods require stamps as arguments, and fail if they do not match the state of the lock. The three modes are:
  • Writing. Method writeLock() possibly blocks waiting for exclusive access, returning a stamp that can be used in method unlockWrite(long) to release the lock. Untimed and timed versions of tryWriteLock are also provided. When the lock is held in write mode, no read locks may be obtained, and all optimistic read validations will fail.
  • Reading. Method readLock() possibly blocks waiting for non-exclusive access, returning a stamp that can be used in method unlockRead(long) to release the lock. Untimed and timed versions of tryReadLock are also provided.
  • Optimistic Reading. Method tryOptimisticRead() returns a non-zero stamp only if the lock is not currently held in write mode. Method validate(long) returns true if the lock has not been acquired in write mode since obtaining a given stamp, in which case all actions prior to the most recent write lock release happen-before actions following the call to tryOptimisticRead. This mode can be thought of as an extremely weak version of a read-lock, that can be broken by a writer at any time. The use of optimistic read mode for short read-only code segments often reduces contention and improves throughput. However, its use is inherently fragile. Optimistic read sections should only read fields and hold them in local variables for later use after validation. Fields read while in optimistic read mode may be wildly inconsistent, so usage applies only when you are familiar enough with data representations to check consistency and/or repeatedly invoke method validate(). For example, such steps are typically required when first reading an object or array reference, and then accessing one of its fields, elements or methods.

This class also supports methods that conditionally provide conversions across the three modes. For example, method tryConvertToWriteLock(long) attempts to "upgrade" a mode, returning a valid write stamp if (1) already in writing mode (2) in reading mode and there are no other readers or (3) in optimistic read mode and the lock is available. The forms of these methods are designed to help reduce some of the code bloat that otherwise occurs in retry-based designs.

StampedLocks are designed for use as internal utilities in the development of thread-safe components. Their use relies on knowledge of the internal properties of the data, objects, and methods they are protecting. They are not reentrant, so locked bodies should not call other unknown methods that may try to re-acquire locks (although you may pass a stamp to other methods that can use or convert it). The use of read lock modes relies on the associated code sections being side-effect-free. Unvalidated optimistic read sections cannot call methods that are not known to tolerate potential inconsistencies. Stamps use finite representations, and are not cryptographically secure (i.e., a valid stamp may be guessable). Stamp values may recycle after (no sooner than) one year of continuous operation. A stamp held without use or validation for longer than this period may fail to validate correctly. StampedLocks are serializable, but always deserialize into initial unlocked state, so they are not useful for remote locking.

Like Semaphore, but unlike most Lock implementations, StampedLocks have no notion of ownership. Locks acquired in one thread can be released or converted in another.

The scheduling policy of StampedLock does not consistently prefer readers over writers or vice versa. All "try" methods are best-effort and do not necessarily conform to any scheduling or fairness policy. A zero return from any "try" method for acquiring or converting locks does not carry any information about the state of the lock; a subsequent invocation may succeed.

Because it supports coordinated usage across multiple lock modes, this class does not directly implement the Lock or ReadWriteLock interfaces. However, a StampedLock may be viewed asReadLock(), asWriteLock(), or asReadWriteLock() in applications requiring only the associated set of functionality.

Memory Synchronization. Methods with the effect of successfully locking in any mode have the same memory synchronization effects as a Lock action, as described in Chapter 17 of The Java™ Language Specification. Methods successfully unlocking in write mode have the same memory synchronization effects as an Unlock action. In optimistic read usages, actions prior to the most recent write mode unlock action are guaranteed to happen-before those following a tryOptimisticRead only if a later validate returns true; otherwise there is no guarantee that the reads between tryOptimisticRead and validate obtain a consistent snapshot.

Sample Usage. The following illustrates some usage idioms in a class that maintains simple two-dimensional points. The sample code illustrates some try/catch conventions even though they are not strictly needed here because no exceptions can occur in their bodies.

 
 class Point {
   private double x, y;
   private final StampedLock sl = new StampedLock();

   // an exclusively locked method
   void move(double deltaX, double deltaY) {
     long stamp = sl.writeLock();
     try {
       x += deltaX;
       y += deltaY;
     } finally {
       sl.unlockWrite(stamp);
     }
   }

   // a read-only method
   // upgrade from optimistic read to read lock
   double distanceFromOrigin() {
     long stamp = sl.tryOptimisticRead();
     try {
       retryHoldingLock: for (;; stamp = sl.readLock()) {
         if (stamp == 0L)
           continue retryHoldingLock;
         // possibly racy reads
         double currentX = x;
         double currentY = y;
         if (!sl.validate(stamp))
           continue retryHoldingLock;
         return Math.hypot(currentX, currentY);
       }
     } finally {
       if (StampedLock.isReadLockStamp(stamp))
         sl.unlockRead(stamp);
     }
   }

   // upgrade from optimistic read to write lock
   void moveIfAtOrigin(double newX, double newY) {
     long stamp = sl.tryOptimisticRead();
     try {
       retryHoldingLock: for (;; stamp = sl.writeLock()) {
         if (stamp == 0L)
           continue retryHoldingLock;
         // possibly racy reads
         double currentX = x;
         double currentY = y;
         if (!sl.validate(stamp))
           continue retryHoldingLock;
         if (currentX != 0.0 || currentY != 0.0)
           break;
         stamp = sl.tryConvertToWriteLock(stamp);
         if (stamp == 0L)
           continue retryHoldingLock;
         // exclusive access
         x = newX;
         y = newY;
         return;
       }
     } finally {
       if (StampedLock.isWriteLockStamp(stamp))
         sl.unlockWrite(stamp);
     }
   }

   // Upgrade read lock to write lock
   void moveIfAtOrigin(double newX, double newY) {
     long stamp = sl.readLock();
     try {
       while (x == 0.0 && y == 0.0) {
         long ws = sl.tryConvertToWriteLock(stamp);
         if (ws != 0L) {
           stamp = ws;
           x = newX;
           y = newY;
           break;
         }
         else {
           sl.unlockRead(stamp);
           stamp = sl.writeLock();
         }
       }
     } finally {
       sl.unlock(stamp);
     }
   }
 }
See Java Language Specification:
17.4 Memory Model
Since:
1.8
See Also:
Serialized Form
  • Constructor Summary

    Constructors
    Constructor Description
    StampedLock()
    Creates a new lock, initially in unlocked state.
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type Method Description
    Lock asReadLock()
    Returns a plain Lock view of this StampedLock in which the Lock.lock() method is mapped to readLock(), and similarly for other methods.
    ReadWriteLock asReadWriteLock()
    Returns a ReadWriteLock view of this StampedLock in which the ReadWriteLock.readLock() method is mapped to asReadLock(), and ReadWriteLock.writeLock() to asWriteLock().
    Lock asWriteLock()
    Returns a plain Lock view of this StampedLock in which the Lock.lock() method is mapped to writeLock(), and similarly for other methods.
    int getReadLockCount()
    Queries the number of read locks held for this lock.
    static boolean isLockStamp​(long stamp)
    Tells whether a stamp represents holding a lock.
    static boolean isOptimisticReadStamp​(long stamp)
    Tells whether a stamp represents a successful optimistic read.
    boolean isReadLocked()
    Returns true if the lock is currently held non-exclusively.
    static boolean isReadLockStamp​(long stamp)
    Tells whether a stamp represents holding a lock non-exclusively.
    boolean isWriteLocked()
    Returns true if the lock is currently held exclusively.
    static boolean isWriteLockStamp​(long stamp)
    Tells whether a stamp represents holding a lock exclusively.
    long readLock()
    Non-exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available.
    long readLockInterruptibly()
    Non-exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available or the current thread is interrupted.
    String toString()
    Returns a string identifying this lock, as well as its lock state.
    long tryConvertToOptimisticRead​(long stamp)
    If the lock state matches the given stamp then, atomically, if the stamp represents holding a lock, releases it and returns an observation stamp.
    long tryConvertToReadLock​(long stamp)
    If the lock state matches the given stamp, atomically performs one of the following actions.
    long tryConvertToWriteLock​(long stamp)
    If the lock state matches the given stamp, atomically performs one of the following actions.
    long tryOptimisticRead()
    Returns a stamp that can later be validated, or zero if exclusively locked.
    long tryReadLock()
    Non-exclusively acquires the lock if it is immediately available.
    long tryReadLock​(long time, TimeUnit unit)
    Non-exclusively acquires the lock if it is available within the given time and the current thread has not been interrupted.
    boolean tryUnlockRead()
    Releases one hold of the read lock if it is held, without requiring a stamp value.
    boolean tryUnlockWrite()
    Releases the write lock if it is held, without requiring a stamp value.
    long tryWriteLock()
    Exclusively acquires the lock if it is immediately available.
    long tryWriteLock​(long time, TimeUnit unit)
    Exclusively acquires the lock if it is available within the given time and the current thread has not been interrupted.
    void unlock​(long stamp)
    If the lock state matches the given stamp, releases the corresponding mode of the lock.
    void unlockRead​(long stamp)
    If the lock state matches the given stamp, releases the non-exclusive lock.
    void unlockWrite​(long stamp)
    If the lock state matches the given stamp, releases the exclusive lock.
    boolean validate​(long stamp)
    Returns true if the lock has not been exclusively acquired since issuance of the given stamp.
    long writeLock()
    Exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available.
    long writeLockInterruptibly()
    Exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available or the current thread is interrupted.

    Methods declared in class java.lang.Object

    clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
  • Constructor Details

    • StampedLock

      public StampedLock()
      Creates a new lock, initially in unlocked state.
  • Method Details

    • writeLock

      public long writeLock()
      Exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available.
      Returns:
      a write stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode
    • tryWriteLock

      public long tryWriteLock()
      Exclusively acquires the lock if it is immediately available.
      Returns:
      a write stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode, or zero if the lock is not available
    • tryWriteLock

      public long tryWriteLock​(long time, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException
      Exclusively acquires the lock if it is available within the given time and the current thread has not been interrupted. Behavior under timeout and interruption matches that specified for method Lock.tryLock(long,TimeUnit).
      Parameters:
      time - the maximum time to wait for the lock
      unit - the time unit of the time argument
      Returns:
      a write stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode, or zero if the lock is not available
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if the current thread is interrupted before acquiring the lock
    • writeLockInterruptibly

      public long writeLockInterruptibly() throws InterruptedException
      Exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available or the current thread is interrupted. Behavior under interruption matches that specified for method Lock.lockInterruptibly().
      Returns:
      a write stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if the current thread is interrupted before acquiring the lock
    • readLock

      public long readLock()
      Non-exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available.
      Returns:
      a read stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode
    • tryReadLock

      public long tryReadLock()
      Non-exclusively acquires the lock if it is immediately available.
      Returns:
      a read stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode, or zero if the lock is not available
    • tryReadLock

      public long tryReadLock​(long time, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException
      Non-exclusively acquires the lock if it is available within the given time and the current thread has not been interrupted. Behavior under timeout and interruption matches that specified for method Lock.tryLock(long,TimeUnit).
      Parameters:
      time - the maximum time to wait for the lock
      unit - the time unit of the time argument
      Returns:
      a read stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode, or zero if the lock is not available
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if the current thread is interrupted before acquiring the lock
    • readLockInterruptibly

      public long readLockInterruptibly() throws InterruptedException
      Non-exclusively acquires the lock, blocking if necessary until available or the current thread is interrupted. Behavior under interruption matches that specified for method Lock.lockInterruptibly().
      Returns:
      a read stamp that can be used to unlock or convert mode
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if the current thread is interrupted before acquiring the lock
    • tryOptimisticRead

      public long tryOptimisticRead()
      Returns a stamp that can later be validated, or zero if exclusively locked.
      Returns:
      a valid optimistic read stamp, or zero if exclusively locked
    • validate

      public boolean validate​(long stamp)
      Returns true if the lock has not been exclusively acquired since issuance of the given stamp. Always returns false if the stamp is zero. Always returns true if the stamp represents a currently held lock. Invoking this method with a value not obtained from tryOptimisticRead() or a locking method for this lock has no defined effect or result.
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp
      Returns:
      true if the lock has not been exclusively acquired since issuance of the given stamp; else false
    • unlockWrite

      public void unlockWrite​(long stamp)
      If the lock state matches the given stamp, releases the exclusive lock.
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp returned by a write-lock operation
      Throws:
      IllegalMonitorStateException - if the stamp does not match the current state of this lock
    • unlockRead

      public void unlockRead​(long stamp)
      If the lock state matches the given stamp, releases the non-exclusive lock.
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp returned by a read-lock operation
      Throws:
      IllegalMonitorStateException - if the stamp does not match the current state of this lock
    • unlock

      public void unlock​(long stamp)
      If the lock state matches the given stamp, releases the corresponding mode of the lock.
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp returned by a lock operation
      Throws:
      IllegalMonitorStateException - if the stamp does not match the current state of this lock
    • tryConvertToWriteLock

      public long tryConvertToWriteLock​(long stamp)
      If the lock state matches the given stamp, atomically performs one of the following actions. If the stamp represents holding a write lock, returns it. Or, if a read lock, if the write lock is available, releases the read lock and returns a write stamp. Or, if an optimistic read, returns a write stamp only if immediately available. This method returns zero in all other cases.
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp
      Returns:
      a valid write stamp, or zero on failure
    • tryConvertToReadLock

      public long tryConvertToReadLock​(long stamp)
      If the lock state matches the given stamp, atomically performs one of the following actions. If the stamp represents holding a write lock, releases it and obtains a read lock. Or, if a read lock, returns it. Or, if an optimistic read, acquires a read lock and returns a read stamp only if immediately available. This method returns zero in all other cases.
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp
      Returns:
      a valid read stamp, or zero on failure
    • tryConvertToOptimisticRead

      public long tryConvertToOptimisticRead​(long stamp)
      If the lock state matches the given stamp then, atomically, if the stamp represents holding a lock, releases it and returns an observation stamp. Or, if an optimistic read, returns it if validated. This method returns zero in all other cases, and so may be useful as a form of "tryUnlock".
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp
      Returns:
      a valid optimistic read stamp, or zero on failure
    • tryUnlockWrite

      public boolean tryUnlockWrite()
      Releases the write lock if it is held, without requiring a stamp value. This method may be useful for recovery after errors.
      Returns:
      true if the lock was held, else false
    • tryUnlockRead

      public boolean tryUnlockRead()
      Releases one hold of the read lock if it is held, without requiring a stamp value. This method may be useful for recovery after errors.
      Returns:
      true if the read lock was held, else false
    • isWriteLocked

      public boolean isWriteLocked()
      Returns true if the lock is currently held exclusively.
      Returns:
      true if the lock is currently held exclusively
    • isReadLocked

      public boolean isReadLocked()
      Returns true if the lock is currently held non-exclusively.
      Returns:
      true if the lock is currently held non-exclusively
    • isWriteLockStamp

      public static boolean isWriteLockStamp​(long stamp)
      Tells whether a stamp represents holding a lock exclusively. This method may be useful in conjunction with tryConvertToWriteLock(long), for example:
       
       long stamp = sl.tryOptimisticRead();
       try {
         ...
         stamp = sl.tryConvertToWriteLock(stamp);
         ...
       } finally {
         if (StampedLock.isWriteLockStamp(stamp))
           sl.unlockWrite(stamp);
       }
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp returned by a previous StampedLock operation
      Returns:
      true if the stamp was returned by a successful write-lock operation
      Since:
      10
    • isReadLockStamp

      public static boolean isReadLockStamp​(long stamp)
      Tells whether a stamp represents holding a lock non-exclusively. This method may be useful in conjunction with tryConvertToReadLock(long), for example:
       
       long stamp = sl.tryOptimisticRead();
       try {
         ...
         stamp = sl.tryConvertToReadLock(stamp);
         ...
       } finally {
         if (StampedLock.isReadLockStamp(stamp))
           sl.unlockRead(stamp);
       }
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp returned by a previous StampedLock operation
      Returns:
      true if the stamp was returned by a successful read-lock operation
      Since:
      10
    • isLockStamp

      public static boolean isLockStamp​(long stamp)
      Tells whether a stamp represents holding a lock. This method may be useful in conjunction with tryConvertToReadLock(long) and tryConvertToWriteLock(long), for example:
       
       long stamp = sl.tryOptimisticRead();
       try {
         ...
         stamp = sl.tryConvertToReadLock(stamp);
         ...
         stamp = sl.tryConvertToWriteLock(stamp);
         ...
       } finally {
         if (StampedLock.isLockStamp(stamp))
           sl.unlock(stamp);
       }
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp returned by a previous StampedLock operation
      Returns:
      true if the stamp was returned by a successful read-lock or write-lock operation
      Since:
      10
    • isOptimisticReadStamp

      public static boolean isOptimisticReadStamp​(long stamp)
      Tells whether a stamp represents a successful optimistic read.
      Parameters:
      stamp - a stamp returned by a previous StampedLock operation
      Returns:
      true if the stamp was returned by a successful optimistic read operation, that is, a non-zero return from tryOptimisticRead() or tryConvertToOptimisticRead(long)
      Since:
      10
    • getReadLockCount

      public int getReadLockCount()
      Queries the number of read locks held for this lock. This method is designed for use in monitoring system state, not for synchronization control.
      Returns:
      the number of read locks held
    • toString

      public String toString()
      Returns a string identifying this lock, as well as its lock state. The state, in brackets, includes the String "Unlocked" or the String "Write-locked" or the String "Read-locks:" followed by the current number of read-locks held.
      Overrides:
      toString in class Object
      Returns:
      a string identifying this lock, as well as its lock state
    • asReadLock

      public Lock asReadLock()
      Returns a plain Lock view of this StampedLock in which the Lock.lock() method is mapped to readLock(), and similarly for other methods. The returned Lock does not support a Condition; method Lock.newCondition() throws UnsupportedOperationException.
      Returns:
      the lock
    • asWriteLock

      public Lock asWriteLock()
      Returns a plain Lock view of this StampedLock in which the Lock.lock() method is mapped to writeLock(), and similarly for other methods. The returned Lock does not support a Condition; method Lock.newCondition() throws UnsupportedOperationException.
      Returns:
      the lock
    • asReadWriteLock

      public ReadWriteLock asReadWriteLock()
      Returns a ReadWriteLock view of this StampedLock in which the ReadWriteLock.readLock() method is mapped to asReadLock(), and ReadWriteLock.writeLock() to asWriteLock().
      Returns:
      the lock