# Class Rectangle

All Implemented Interfaces:
`Shape`, `Serializable`, `Cloneable`
Direct Known Subclasses:
`DefaultCaret`

public class Rectangle extends Rectangle2D implements Shape, Serializable
A `Rectangle` specifies an area in a coordinate space that is enclosed by the `Rectangle` object's upper-left point `(x,y)` in the coordinate space, its width, and its height.

A `Rectangle` object's `width` and `height` are `public` fields. The constructors that create a `Rectangle`, and the methods that can modify one, do not prevent setting a negative value for width or height.

A `Rectangle` whose width or height is exactly zero has location along those axes with zero dimension, but is otherwise considered empty. The `isEmpty()` method will return true for such a `Rectangle`. Methods which test if an empty `Rectangle` contains or intersects a point or rectangle will always return false if either dimension is zero. Methods which combine such a `Rectangle` with a point or rectangle will include the location of the `Rectangle` on that axis in the result as if the `add(Point)` method were being called.

Methods which affect only the location of a `Rectangle` will operate on its location regardless of whether or not it has a negative or zero dimension along either axis.

Note that a `Rectangle` constructed with the default no-argument constructor will have dimensions of `0x0` and therefore be empty. That `Rectangle` will still have a location of `(0,0)` and will contribute that location to the union and add operations. Code attempting to accumulate the bounds of a set of points should therefore initially construct the `Rectangle` with a specifically negative width and height or it should use the first point in the set to construct the `Rectangle`. For example:

``````
Rectangle bounds = new Rectangle(0, 0, -1, -1);
for (int i = 0; i < points.length; i++) {
}
``````
or if we know that the points array contains at least one point:
``````
Rectangle bounds = new Rectangle(points[0]);
for (int i = 1; i < points.length; i++) {
}
``````

This class uses 32-bit integers to store its location and dimensions. Frequently operations may produce a result that exceeds the range of a 32-bit integer. The methods will calculate their results in a way that avoids any 32-bit overflow for intermediate results and then choose the best representation to store the final results back into the 32-bit fields which hold the location and dimensions. The location of the result will be stored into the `x` and `y` fields by clipping the true result to the nearest 32-bit value. The values stored into the `width` and `height` dimension fields will be chosen as the 32-bit values that encompass the largest part of the true result as possible. Generally this means that the dimension will be clipped independently to the range of 32-bit integers except that if the location had to be moved to store it into its pair of 32-bit fields then the dimensions will be adjusted relative to the "best representation" of the location. If the true result had a negative dimension and was therefore non-existent along one or both axes, the stored dimensions will be negative numbers in those axes. If the true result had a location that could be represented within the range of 32-bit integers, but zero dimension along one or both axes, then the stored dimensions will be zero in those axes.

Since:
1.0
• ## Nested Class Summary

### Nested classes/interfaces declared in class java.awt.geom.Rectangle2D

`Rectangle2D.Double, Rectangle2D.Float`
• ## Field Summary

Fields
Modifier and Type
Field
Description
`int`
`height`
The height of the `Rectangle`.
`int`
`width`
The width of the `Rectangle`.
`int`
`x`
The X coordinate of the upper-left corner of the `Rectangle`.
`int`
`y`
The Y coordinate of the upper-left corner of the `Rectangle`.

### Fields declared in class java.awt.geom.Rectangle2D

`OUT_BOTTOM, OUT_LEFT, OUT_RIGHT, OUT_TOP`
• ## Constructor Summary

Constructors
Constructor
Description
`Rectangle()`
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is at (0, 0) in the coordinate space, and whose width and height are both zero.
```Rectangle(int width, int height)```
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is at (0, 0) in the coordinate space, and whose width and height are specified by the arguments of the same name.
```Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height)```
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is specified as `(x,y)` and whose width and height are specified by the arguments of the same name.
`Rectangle(Dimension d)`
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose top left corner is (0, 0) and whose width and height are specified by the `Dimension` argument.
`Rectangle(Point p)`
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is the specified `Point`, and whose width and height are both zero.
```Rectangle(Point p, Dimension d)```
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is specified by the `Point` argument, and whose width and height are specified by the `Dimension` argument.
`Rectangle(Rectangle r)`
Constructs a new `Rectangle`, initialized to match the values of the specified `Rectangle`.
• ## Method Summary

Modifier and Type
Method
Description
`void`
```add(int newx, int newy)```
Adds a point, specified by the integer arguments `newx,newy` to the bounds of this `Rectangle`.
`void`
`add(Point pt)`
Adds the specified `Point` to the bounds of this `Rectangle`.
`void`
`add(Rectangle r)`
Adds a `Rectangle` to this `Rectangle`.
`boolean`
```contains(int x, int y)```
Checks whether or not this `Rectangle` contains the point at the specified location `(x,y)`.
`boolean`
```contains(int X, int Y, int W, int H)```
Checks whether this `Rectangle` entirely contains the `Rectangle` at the specified location `(X,Y)` with the specified dimensions `(W,H)`.
`boolean`
`contains(Point p)`
Checks whether or not this `Rectangle` contains the specified `Point`.
`boolean`
`contains(Rectangle r)`
Checks whether or not this `Rectangle` entirely contains the specified `Rectangle`.
`Rectangle2D`
`createIntersection(Rectangle2D r)`
Returns a new `Rectangle2D` object representing the intersection of this `Rectangle2D` with the specified `Rectangle2D`.
`Rectangle2D`
`createUnion(Rectangle2D r)`
Returns a new `Rectangle2D` object representing the union of this `Rectangle2D` with the specified `Rectangle2D`.
`boolean`
`equals(Object obj)`
Checks whether two rectangles are equal.
`Rectangle`
`getBounds()`
Gets the bounding `Rectangle` of this `Rectangle`.
`Rectangle2D`
`getBounds2D()`
Returns a high precision and more accurate bounding box of the `Shape` than the `getBounds` method.
`double`
`getHeight()`
Returns the height of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
`Point`
`getLocation()`
Returns the location of this `Rectangle`.
`Dimension`
`getSize()`
Gets the size of this `Rectangle`, represented by the returned `Dimension`.
`double`
`getWidth()`
Returns the width of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
`double`
`getX()`
Returns the X coordinate of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
`double`
`getY()`
Returns the Y coordinate of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
`void`
```grow(int h, int v)```
Resizes the `Rectangle` both horizontally and vertically.
`boolean`
```inside(int X, int Y)```
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `contains(int, int)`.
`Rectangle`
`intersection(Rectangle r)`
Computes the intersection of this `Rectangle` with the specified `Rectangle`.
`boolean`
`intersects(Rectangle r)`
Determines whether or not this `Rectangle` and the specified `Rectangle` intersect.
`boolean`
`isEmpty()`
Determines whether the `RectangularShape` is empty.
`void`
```move(int x, int y)```
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `setLocation(int, int)`.
`int`
```outcode(double x, double y)```
Determines where the specified coordinates lie with respect to this `Rectangle2D`.
`void`
```reshape(int x, int y, int width, int height)```
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `setBounds(int, int, int, int)`.
`void`
```resize(int width, int height)```
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `setSize(int, int)`.
`void`
```setBounds(int x, int y, int width, int height)```
Sets the bounding `Rectangle` of this `Rectangle` to the specified `x`, `y`, `width`, and `height`.
`void`
`setBounds(Rectangle r)`
Sets the bounding `Rectangle` of this `Rectangle` to match the specified `Rectangle`.
`void`
```setLocation(int x, int y)```
Moves this `Rectangle` to the specified location.
`void`
`setLocation(Point p)`
Moves this `Rectangle` to the specified location.
`void`
```setRect(double x, double y, double width, double height)```
Sets the bounds of this `Rectangle` to the integer bounds which encompass the specified `x`, `y`, `width`, and `height`.
`void`
```setSize(int width, int height)```
Sets the size of this `Rectangle` to the specified width and height.
`void`
`setSize(Dimension d)`
Sets the size of this `Rectangle` to match the specified `Dimension`.
`String`
`toString()`
Returns a `String` representing this `Rectangle` and its values.
`void`
```translate(int dx, int dy)```
Translates this `Rectangle` the indicated distance, to the right along the X coordinate axis, and downward along the Y coordinate axis.
`Rectangle`
`union(Rectangle r)`
Computes the union of this `Rectangle` with the specified `Rectangle`.

### Methods declared in class java.awt.geom.Rectangle2D

`add, add, add, contains, contains, getPathIterator, getPathIterator, hashCode, intersect, intersects, intersectsLine, intersectsLine, outcode, setFrame, setRect, union`

### Methods declared in class java.awt.geom.RectangularShape

`clone, contains, contains, getCenterX, getCenterY, getFrame, getMaxX, getMaxY, getMinX, getMinY, intersects, setFrame, setFrame, setFrameFromCenter, setFrameFromCenter, setFrameFromDiagonal, setFrameFromDiagonal`

### Methods declared in class java.lang.Object

`finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait`

### Methods declared in interface java.awt.Shape

`contains, contains, contains, contains, getPathIterator, getPathIterator, intersects, intersects`
• ## Field Details

• ### x

public int x
The X coordinate of the upper-left corner of the `Rectangle`.
Since:
1.0
• ### y

public int y
The Y coordinate of the upper-left corner of the `Rectangle`.
Since:
1.0
• ### width

public int width
The width of the `Rectangle`.
Since:
1.0
• ### height

public int height
The height of the `Rectangle`.
Since:
1.0
• ## Constructor Details

• ### Rectangle

public Rectangle()
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is at (0, 0) in the coordinate space, and whose width and height are both zero.
• ### Rectangle

public Rectangle(Rectangle r)
Constructs a new `Rectangle`, initialized to match the values of the specified `Rectangle`.
Parameters:
`r` - the `Rectangle` from which to copy initial values to a newly constructed `Rectangle`
Since:
1.1
• ### Rectangle

public Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height)
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is specified as `(x,y)` and whose width and height are specified by the arguments of the same name.
Parameters:
`x` - the specified X coordinate
`y` - the specified Y coordinate
`width` - the width of the `Rectangle`
`height` - the height of the `Rectangle`
Since:
1.0
• ### Rectangle

public Rectangle(int width, int height)
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is at (0, 0) in the coordinate space, and whose width and height are specified by the arguments of the same name.
Parameters:
`width` - the width of the `Rectangle`
`height` - the height of the `Rectangle`
• ### Rectangle

public Rectangle(Point p, Dimension d)
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is specified by the `Point` argument, and whose width and height are specified by the `Dimension` argument.
Parameters:
`p` - a `Point` that is the upper-left corner of the `Rectangle`
`d` - a `Dimension`, representing the width and height of the `Rectangle`
• ### Rectangle

public Rectangle(Point p)
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose upper-left corner is the specified `Point`, and whose width and height are both zero.
Parameters:
`p` - a `Point` that is the top left corner of the `Rectangle`
• ### Rectangle

public Rectangle(Dimension d)
Constructs a new `Rectangle` whose top left corner is (0, 0) and whose width and height are specified by the `Dimension` argument.
Parameters:
`d` - a `Dimension`, specifying width and height
• ## Method Details

• ### getX

public double getX()
Returns the X coordinate of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
Specified by:
`getX` in class `RectangularShape`
Returns:
the X coordinate of the bounding `Rectangle`.
• ### getY

public double getY()
Returns the Y coordinate of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
Specified by:
`getY` in class `RectangularShape`
Returns:
the Y coordinate of the bounding `Rectangle`.
• ### getWidth

public double getWidth()
Returns the width of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
Specified by:
`getWidth` in class `RectangularShape`
Returns:
the width of the bounding `Rectangle`.
• ### getHeight

public double getHeight()
Returns the height of the bounding `Rectangle` in `double` precision.
Specified by:
`getHeight` in class `RectangularShape`
Returns:
the height of the bounding `Rectangle`.
• ### getBounds

public Rectangle getBounds()
Gets the bounding `Rectangle` of this `Rectangle`.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `getBounds` method of `Component`.

Specified by:
`getBounds` in interface `Shape`
Overrides:
`getBounds` in class `RectangularShape`
Returns:
a new `Rectangle`, equal to the bounding `Rectangle` for this `Rectangle`.
Since:
1.1
• ### getBounds2D

public Rectangle2D getBounds2D()
Returns a high precision and more accurate bounding box of the `Shape` than the `getBounds` method. Note that there is no guarantee that the returned `Rectangle2D` is the smallest bounding box that encloses the `Shape`, only that the `Shape` lies entirely within the indicated `Rectangle2D`. The bounding box returned by this method is usually tighter than that returned by the `getBounds` method and never fails due to overflow problems since the return value can be an instance of the `Rectangle2D` that uses double precision values to store the dimensions.

Note that the definition of insideness can lead to situations where points on the defining outline of the `shape` may not be considered contained in the returned `bounds` object, but only in cases where those points are also not considered contained in the original `shape`.

If a `point` is inside the `shape` according to the `contains(point)` method, then it must be inside the returned `Rectangle2D` bounds object according to the `contains(point)` method of the `bounds`. Specifically:

`shape.contains(p)` requires `bounds.contains(p)`

If a `point` is not inside the `shape`, then it might still be contained in the `bounds` object:

`bounds.contains(p)` does not imply `shape.contains(p)`

Specified by:
`getBounds2D` in interface `Shape`
Overrides:
`getBounds2D` in class `Rectangle2D`
Returns:
an instance of `Rectangle2D` that is a high-precision bounding box of the `Shape`.
Since:
1.2
• ### setBounds

public void setBounds(Rectangle r)
Sets the bounding `Rectangle` of this `Rectangle` to match the specified `Rectangle`.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `setBounds` method of `Component`.

Parameters:
`r` - the specified `Rectangle`
Since:
1.1
• ### setBounds

public void setBounds(int x, int y, int width, int height)
Sets the bounding `Rectangle` of this `Rectangle` to the specified `x`, `y`, `width`, and `height`.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `setBounds` method of `Component`.

Parameters:
`x` - the new X coordinate for the upper-left corner of this `Rectangle`
`y` - the new Y coordinate for the upper-left corner of this `Rectangle`
`width` - the new width for this `Rectangle`
`height` - the new height for this `Rectangle`
Since:
1.1
• ### setRect

public void setRect(double x, double y, double width, double height)
Sets the bounds of this `Rectangle` to the integer bounds which encompass the specified `x`, `y`, `width`, and `height`. If the parameters specify a `Rectangle` that exceeds the maximum range of integers, the result will be the best representation of the specified `Rectangle` intersected with the maximum integer bounds.
Specified by:
`setRect` in class `Rectangle2D`
Parameters:
`x` - the X coordinate of the upper-left corner of the specified rectangle
`y` - the Y coordinate of the upper-left corner of the specified rectangle
`width` - the width of the specified rectangle
`height` - the new height of the specified rectangle
• ### reshape

public void reshape(int x, int y, int width, int height)
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `setBounds(int, int, int, int)`.
Sets the bounding `Rectangle` of this `Rectangle` to the specified `x`, `y`, `width`, and `height`.
Parameters:
`x` - the new X coordinate for the upper-left corner of this `Rectangle`
`y` - the new Y coordinate for the upper-left corner of this `Rectangle`
`width` - the new width for this `Rectangle`
`height` - the new height for this `Rectangle`
• ### getLocation

public Point getLocation()
Returns the location of this `Rectangle`.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `getLocation` method of `Component`.

Returns:
the `Point` that is the upper-left corner of this `Rectangle`.
Since:
1.1
• ### setLocation

public void setLocation(Point p)
Moves this `Rectangle` to the specified location.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `setLocation` method of `Component`.

Parameters:
`p` - the `Point` specifying the new location for this `Rectangle`
Since:
1.1
• ### setLocation

public void setLocation(int x, int y)
Moves this `Rectangle` to the specified location.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `setLocation` method of `Component`.

Parameters:
`x` - the X coordinate of the new location
`y` - the Y coordinate of the new location
Since:
1.1
• ### move

public void move(int x, int y)
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `setLocation(int, int)`.
Moves this `Rectangle` to the specified location.
Parameters:
`x` - the X coordinate of the new location
`y` - the Y coordinate of the new location
• ### translate

public void translate(int dx, int dy)
Translates this `Rectangle` the indicated distance, to the right along the X coordinate axis, and downward along the Y coordinate axis.
Parameters:
`dx` - the distance to move this `Rectangle` along the X axis
`dy` - the distance to move this `Rectangle` along the Y axis
• ### getSize

public Dimension getSize()
Gets the size of this `Rectangle`, represented by the returned `Dimension`.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `getSize` method of `Component`.

Returns:
a `Dimension`, representing the size of this `Rectangle`.
Since:
1.1
• ### setSize

public void setSize(Dimension d)
Sets the size of this `Rectangle` to match the specified `Dimension`.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `setSize` method of `Component`.

Parameters:
`d` - the new size for the `Dimension` object
Since:
1.1
• ### setSize

public void setSize(int width, int height)
Sets the size of this `Rectangle` to the specified width and height.

This method is included for completeness, to parallel the `setSize` method of `Component`.

Parameters:
`width` - the new width for this `Rectangle`
`height` - the new height for this `Rectangle`
Since:
1.1
• ### resize

public void resize(int width, int height)
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `setSize(int, int)`.
Sets the size of this `Rectangle` to the specified width and height.
Parameters:
`width` - the new width for this `Rectangle`
`height` - the new height for this `Rectangle`
• ### contains

public boolean contains(Point p)
Checks whether or not this `Rectangle` contains the specified `Point`.
Parameters:
`p` - the `Point` to test
Returns:
`true` if the specified `Point` is inside this `Rectangle`; `false` otherwise.
Since:
1.1
• ### contains

public boolean contains(int x, int y)
Checks whether or not this `Rectangle` contains the point at the specified location `(x,y)`.
Parameters:
`x` - the specified X coordinate
`y` - the specified Y coordinate
Returns:
`true` if the point `(x,y)` is inside this `Rectangle`; `false` otherwise.
Since:
1.1
• ### contains

public boolean contains(Rectangle r)
Checks whether or not this `Rectangle` entirely contains the specified `Rectangle`.
Parameters:
`r` - the specified `Rectangle`
Returns:
`true` if the `Rectangle` is contained entirely inside this `Rectangle`; `false` otherwise
Since:
1.2
• ### contains

public boolean contains(int X, int Y, int W, int H)
Checks whether this `Rectangle` entirely contains the `Rectangle` at the specified location `(X,Y)` with the specified dimensions `(W,H)`.
Parameters:
`X` - the specified X coordinate
`Y` - the specified Y coordinate
`W` - the width of the `Rectangle`
`H` - the height of the `Rectangle`
Returns:
`true` if the `Rectangle` specified by `(X, Y, W, H)` is entirely enclosed inside this `Rectangle`; `false` otherwise.
Since:
1.1
• ### inside

public boolean inside(int X, int Y)
Deprecated.
As of JDK version 1.1, replaced by `contains(int, int)`.
Checks whether or not this `Rectangle` contains the point at the specified location `(X,Y)`.
Parameters:
`X` - the specified X coordinate
`Y` - the specified Y coordinate
Returns:
`true` if the point `(X,Y)` is inside this `Rectangle`; `false` otherwise.
• ### intersects

public boolean intersects(Rectangle r)
Determines whether or not this `Rectangle` and the specified `Rectangle` intersect. Two rectangles intersect if their intersection is nonempty.
Parameters:
`r` - the specified `Rectangle`
Returns:
`true` if the specified `Rectangle` and this `Rectangle` intersect; `false` otherwise.
• ### intersection

public Rectangle intersection(Rectangle r)
Computes the intersection of this `Rectangle` with the specified `Rectangle`. Returns a new `Rectangle` that represents the intersection of the two rectangles. If the two rectangles do not intersect, the result will be an empty rectangle.
Parameters:
`r` - the specified `Rectangle`
Returns:
the largest `Rectangle` contained in both the specified `Rectangle` and in this `Rectangle`; or if the rectangles do not intersect, an empty rectangle.
• ### union

public Rectangle union(Rectangle r)
Computes the union of this `Rectangle` with the specified `Rectangle`. Returns a new `Rectangle` that represents the union of the two rectangles.

If either `Rectangle` has any dimension less than zero the rules for non-existent rectangles apply. If only one has a dimension less than zero, then the result will be a copy of the other `Rectangle`. If both have dimension less than zero, then the result will have at least one dimension less than zero.

If the resulting `Rectangle` would have a dimension too large to be expressed as an `int`, the result will have a dimension of `Integer.MAX_VALUE` along that dimension.

Parameters:
`r` - the specified `Rectangle`
Returns:
the smallest `Rectangle` containing both the specified `Rectangle` and this `Rectangle`.

public void add(int newx, int newy)
Adds a point, specified by the integer arguments `newx,newy` to the bounds of this `Rectangle`.

If this `Rectangle` has any dimension less than zero, the rules for non-existent rectangles apply. In that case, the new bounds of this `Rectangle` will have a location equal to the specified coordinates and width and height equal to zero.

After adding a point, a call to `contains` with the added point as an argument does not necessarily return `true`. The `contains` method does not return `true` for points on the right or bottom edges of a `Rectangle`. Therefore, if the added point falls on the right or bottom edge of the enlarged `Rectangle`, `contains` returns `false` for that point. If the specified point must be contained within the new `Rectangle`, a 1x1 rectangle should be added instead:

```     r.add(new Rectangle(newx, newy, 1, 1));
```
Parameters:
`newx` - the X coordinate of the new point
`newy` - the Y coordinate of the new point

Adds the specified `Point` to the bounds of this `Rectangle`.

If this `Rectangle` has any dimension less than zero, the rules for non-existent rectangles apply. In that case, the new bounds of this `Rectangle` will have a location equal to the coordinates of the specified `Point` and width and height equal to zero.

After adding a `Point`, a call to `contains` with the added `Point` as an argument does not necessarily return `true`. The `contains` method does not return `true` for points on the right or bottom edges of a `Rectangle`. Therefore if the added `Point` falls on the right or bottom edge of the enlarged `Rectangle`, `contains` returns `false` for that `Point`. If the specified point must be contained within the new `Rectangle`, a 1x1 rectangle should be added instead:

```     r.add(new Rectangle(pt, new Dimension(1, 1)));
```
Parameters:
`pt` - the new `Point` to add to this `Rectangle`

Adds a `Rectangle` to this `Rectangle`. The resulting `Rectangle` is the union of the two rectangles.

If either `Rectangle` has any dimension less than 0, the result will have the dimensions of the other `Rectangle`. If both `Rectangle`s have at least one dimension less than 0, the result will have at least one dimension less than 0.

If either `Rectangle` has one or both dimensions equal to 0, the result along those axes with 0 dimensions will be equivalent to the results obtained by adding the corresponding origin coordinate to the result rectangle along that axis, similar to the operation of the `add(Point)` method, but contribute no further dimension beyond that.

If the resulting `Rectangle` would have a dimension too large to be expressed as an `int`, the result will have a dimension of `Integer.MAX_VALUE` along that dimension.

Parameters:
`r` - the specified `Rectangle`
• ### grow

public void grow(int h, int v)
Resizes the `Rectangle` both horizontally and vertically.

This method modifies the `Rectangle` so that it is `h` units larger on both the left and right side, and `v` units larger at both the top and bottom.

The new `Rectangle` has `(x - h, y - v)` as its upper-left corner, width of `(width + 2h)`, and a height of `(height + 2v)`.

If negative values are supplied for `h` and `v`, the size of the `Rectangle` decreases accordingly. The `grow` method will check for integer overflow and underflow, but does not check whether the resulting values of `width` and `height` grow from negative to non-negative or shrink from non-negative to negative.

Parameters:
`h` - the horizontal expansion
`v` - the vertical expansion
• ### isEmpty

public boolean isEmpty()
Determines whether the `RectangularShape` is empty. When the `RectangularShape` is empty, it encloses no area.
Specified by:
`isEmpty` in class `RectangularShape`
Returns:
`true` if the `RectangularShape` is empty; `false` otherwise.
Since:
1.2
• ### outcode

public int outcode(double x, double y)
Determines where the specified coordinates lie with respect to this `Rectangle2D`. This method computes a binary OR of the appropriate mask values indicating, for each side of this `Rectangle2D`, whether or not the specified coordinates are on the same side of the edge as the rest of this `Rectangle2D`.
Specified by:
`outcode` in class `Rectangle2D`
Parameters:
`x` - the specified X coordinate
`y` - the specified Y coordinate
Returns:
the logical OR of all appropriate out codes.
Since:
1.2
• ### createIntersection

public Rectangle2D createIntersection(Rectangle2D r)
Returns a new `Rectangle2D` object representing the intersection of this `Rectangle2D` with the specified `Rectangle2D`.
Specified by:
`createIntersection` in class `Rectangle2D`
Parameters:
`r` - the `Rectangle2D` to be intersected with this `Rectangle2D`
Returns:
the largest `Rectangle2D` contained in both the specified `Rectangle2D` and in this `Rectangle2D`.
Since:
1.2
• ### createUnion

public Rectangle2D createUnion(Rectangle2D r)
Returns a new `Rectangle2D` object representing the union of this `Rectangle2D` with the specified `Rectangle2D`.
Specified by:
`createUnion` in class `Rectangle2D`
Parameters:
`r` - the `Rectangle2D` to be combined with this `Rectangle2D`
Returns:
the smallest `Rectangle2D` containing both the specified `Rectangle2D` and this `Rectangle2D`.
Since:
1.2
• ### equals

public boolean equals(Object obj)
Checks whether two rectangles are equal.

The result is `true` if and only if the argument is not `null` and is a `Rectangle` object that has the same upper-left corner, width, and height as this `Rectangle`.

Overrides:
`equals` in class `Rectangle2D`
Parameters:
`obj` - the `Object` to compare with this `Rectangle`
Returns:
`true` if the objects are equal; `false` otherwise.
Returns a `String` representing this `Rectangle` and its values.
`toString` in class `Object`
a `String` representing this `Rectangle` object's coordinate and size values.