Module java.base
Package java.lang

Class StrictMath

java.lang.Object
java.lang.StrictMath

public final class StrictMath
extends Object
The class StrictMath contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.

To help ensure portability of Java programs, the definitions of some of the numeric functions in this package require that they produce the same results as certain published algorithms. These algorithms are available from the well-known network library netlib as the package "Freely Distributable Math Library," fdlibm. These algorithms, which are written in the C programming language, are then to be understood as executed with all floating-point operations following the rules of Java floating-point arithmetic.

The Java math library is defined with respect to fdlibm version 5.3. Where fdlibm provides more than one definition for a function (such as acos), use the "IEEE 754 core function" version (residing in a file whose name begins with the letter e). The methods which require fdlibm semantics are sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan, exp, log, log10, cbrt, atan2, pow, sinh, cosh, tanh, hypot, expm1, and log1p.

The platform uses signed two's complement integer arithmetic with int and long primitive types. The developer should choose the primitive type to ensure that arithmetic operations consistently produce correct results, which in some cases means the operations will not overflow the range of values of the computation. The best practice is to choose the primitive type and algorithm to avoid overflow. In cases where the size is int or long and overflow errors need to be detected, the methods addExact, subtractExact, multiplyExact, toIntExact, incrementExact, decrementExact and negateExact throw an ArithmeticException when the results overflow. For the arithmetic operations divide and absolute value, overflow occurs only with a specific minimum or maximum value and should be checked against the minimum or maximum as appropriate.

Since:
1.3
  • Field Summary

    Fields
    Modifier and Type Field Description
    static double E
    The double value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.
    static double PI
    The double value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type Method Description
    static double abs​(double a)
    Returns the absolute value of a double value.
    static float abs​(float a)
    Returns the absolute value of a float value.
    static int abs​(int a)
    Returns the absolute value of an int value.
    static long abs​(long a)
    Returns the absolute value of a long value.
    static int absExact​(int a)
    Returns the mathematical absolute value of an int value if it is exactly representable as an int, throwing ArithmeticException if the result overflows the positive int range.
    static long absExact​(long a)
    Returns the mathematical absolute value of an long value if it is exactly representable as an long, throwing ArithmeticException if the result overflows the positive long range.
    static double acos​(double a)
    Returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi.
    static int addExact​(int x, int y)
    Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
    static long addExact​(long x, long y)
    Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
    static double asin​(double a)
    Returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.
    static double atan​(double a)
    Returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.
    static double atan2​(double y, double x)
    Returns the angle theta from the conversion of rectangular coordinates (xy) to polar coordinates (r, theta).
    static double cbrt​(double a)
    Returns the cube root of a double value.
    static double ceil​(double a)
    Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
    static double copySign​(double magnitude, double sign)
    Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument.
    static float copySign​(float magnitude, float sign)
    Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument.
    static double cos​(double a)
    Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle.
    static double cosh​(double x)
    Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a double value.
    static int decrementExact​(int a)
    Returns the argument decremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
    static long decrementExact​(long a)
    Returns the argument decremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
    static double exp​(double a)
    Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of a double value.
    static double expm1​(double x)
    Returns ex -1.
    static double floor​(double a)
    Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
    static int floorDiv​(int x, int y)
    Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) int value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
    static long floorDiv​(long x, int y)
    Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) long value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
    static long floorDiv​(long x, long y)
    Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) long value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
    static int floorMod​(int x, int y)
    Returns the floor modulus of the int arguments.
    static int floorMod​(long x, int y)
    Returns the floor modulus of the long and int arguments.
    static long floorMod​(long x, long y)
    Returns the floor modulus of the long arguments.
    static double fma​(double a, double b, double c)
    Returns the fused multiply add of the three arguments; that is, returns the exact product of the first two arguments summed with the third argument and then rounded once to the nearest double.
    static float fma​(float a, float b, float c)
    Returns the fused multiply add of the three arguments; that is, returns the exact product of the first two arguments summed with the third argument and then rounded once to the nearest float.
    static int getExponent​(double d)
    Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a double.
    static int getExponent​(float f)
    Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a float.
    static double hypot​(double x, double y)
    Returns sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow.
    static double IEEEremainder​(double f1, double f2)
    Computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard.
    static int incrementExact​(int a)
    Returns the argument incremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
    static long incrementExact​(long a)
    Returns the argument incremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
    static double log​(double a)
    Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value.
    static double log10​(double a)
    Returns the base 10 logarithm of a double value.
    static double log1p​(double x)
    Returns the natural logarithm of the sum of the argument and 1.
    static double max​(double a, double b)
    Returns the greater of two double values.
    static float max​(float a, float b)
    Returns the greater of two float values.
    static int max​(int a, int b)
    Returns the greater of two int values.
    static long max​(long a, long b)
    Returns the greater of two long values.
    static double min​(double a, double b)
    Returns the smaller of two double values.
    static float min​(float a, float b)
    Returns the smaller of two float values.
    static int min​(int a, int b)
    Returns the smaller of two int values.
    static long min​(long a, long b)
    Returns the smaller of two long values.
    static int multiplyExact​(int x, int y)
    Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
    static long multiplyExact​(long x, int y)
    Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
    static long multiplyExact​(long x, long y)
    Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
    static long multiplyFull​(int x, int y)
    Returns the exact mathematical product of the arguments.
    static long multiplyHigh​(long x, long y)
    Returns as a long the most significant 64 bits of the 128-bit product of two 64-bit factors.
    static int negateExact​(int a)
    Returns the negation of the argument, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
    static long negateExact​(long a)
    Returns the negation of the argument, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
    static double nextAfter​(double start, double direction)
    Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument.
    static float nextAfter​(float start, double direction)
    Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument.
    static double nextDown​(double d)
    Returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of negative infinity.
    static float nextDown​(float f)
    Returns the floating-point value adjacent to f in the direction of negative infinity.
    static double nextUp​(double d)
    Returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of positive infinity.
    static float nextUp​(float f)
    Returns the floating-point value adjacent to f in the direction of positive infinity.
    static double pow​(double a, double b)
    Returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument.
    static double random()
    Returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0.
    static double rint​(double a)
    Returns the double value that is closest in value to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
    static long round​(double a)
    Returns the closest long to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity.
    static int round​(float a)
    Returns the closest int to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity.
    static double scalb​(double d, int scaleFactor)
    Returns d × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the double value set.
    static float scalb​(float f, int scaleFactor)
    Returns f × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the float value set.
    static double signum​(double d)
    Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0 if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0 if the argument is less than zero.
    static float signum​(float f)
    Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0f if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0f if the argument is less than zero.
    static double sin​(double a)
    Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle.
    static double sinh​(double x)
    Returns the hyperbolic sine of a double value.
    static double sqrt​(double a)
    Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a double value.
    static int subtractExact​(int x, int y)
    Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
    static long subtractExact​(long x, long y)
    Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
    static double tan​(double a)
    Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle.
    static double tanh​(double x)
    Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a double value.
    static double toDegrees​(double angrad)
    Converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees.
    static int toIntExact​(long value)
    Returns the value of the long argument, throwing an exception if the value overflows an int.
    static double toRadians​(double angdeg)
    Converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians.
    static double ulp​(double d)
    Returns the size of an ulp of the argument.
    static float ulp​(float f)
    Returns the size of an ulp of the argument.

    Methods declared in class java.lang.Object

    clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
  • Field Details

    • E

      public static final double E
      The double value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.
      See Also:
      Constant Field Values
    • PI

      public static final double PI
      The double value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
      See Also:
      Constant Field Values
  • Method Details

    • sin

      public static double sin(double a)
      Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      a - an angle, in radians.
      Returns:
      the sine of the argument.
    • cos

      public static double cos(double a)
      Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.
      Parameters:
      a - an angle, in radians.
      Returns:
      the cosine of the argument.
    • tan

      public static double tan(double a)
      Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      a - an angle, in radians.
      Returns:
      the tangent of the argument.
    • asin

      public static double asin(double a)
      Returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      a - the value whose arc sine is to be returned.
      Returns:
      the arc sine of the argument.
    • acos

      public static double acos(double a)
      Returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi. Special case:
      • If the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1, then the result is NaN.
      Parameters:
      a - the value whose arc cosine is to be returned.
      Returns:
      the arc cosine of the argument.
    • atan

      public static double atan(double a)
      Returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      a - the value whose arc tangent is to be returned.
      Returns:
      the arc tangent of the argument.
    • toRadians

      public static double toRadians(double angdeg)
      Converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians. The conversion from degrees to radians is generally inexact.
      Parameters:
      angdeg - an angle, in degrees
      Returns:
      the measurement of the angle angdeg in radians.
    • toDegrees

      public static double toDegrees(double angrad)
      Converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees. The conversion from radians to degrees is generally inexact; users should not expect cos(toRadians(90.0)) to exactly equal 0.0.
      Parameters:
      angrad - an angle, in radians
      Returns:
      the measurement of the angle angrad in degrees.
    • exp

      public static double exp(double a)
      Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of a double value. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is negative infinity, then the result is positive zero.
      Parameters:
      a - the exponent to raise e to.
      Returns:
      the value ea, where e is the base of the natural logarithms.
    • log

      public static double log(double a)
      Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is negative infinity.
      Parameters:
      a - a value
      Returns:
      the value ln a, the natural logarithm of a.
    • log10

      public static double log10(double a)
      Returns the base 10 logarithm of a double value. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is negative infinity.
      • If the argument is equal to 10n for integer n, then the result is n.
      Parameters:
      a - a value
      Returns:
      the base 10 logarithm of a.
      Since:
      1.5
    • sqrt

      public static double sqrt(double a)
      Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a double value. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
      Otherwise, the result is the double value closest to the true mathematical square root of the argument value.
      Parameters:
      a - a value.
      Returns:
      the positive square root of a.
    • cbrt

      public static double cbrt(double a)
      Returns the cube root of a double value. For positive finite x, cbrt(-x) == -cbrt(x); that is, the cube root of a negative value is the negative of the cube root of that value's magnitude. Special cases:
      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is infinite, then the result is an infinity with the same sign as the argument.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      a - a value.
      Returns:
      the cube root of a.
      Since:
      1.5
    • IEEEremainder

      public static double IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2)
      Computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard. The remainder value is mathematically equal to f1 - f2 × n, where n is the mathematical integer closest to the exact mathematical value of the quotient f1/f2, and if two mathematical integers are equally close to f1/f2, then n is the integer that is even. If the remainder is zero, its sign is the same as the sign of the first argument. Special cases:
      • If either argument is NaN, or the first argument is infinite, or the second argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is NaN.
      • If the first argument is finite and the second argument is infinite, then the result is the same as the first argument.
      Parameters:
      f1 - the dividend.
      f2 - the divisor.
      Returns:
      the remainder when f1 is divided by f2.
    • ceil

      public static double ceil(double a)
      Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases:
      • If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
      • If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
      • If the argument value is less than zero but greater than -1.0, then the result is negative zero.
      Note that the value of StrictMath.ceil(x) is exactly the value of -StrictMath.floor(-x).
      Parameters:
      a - a value.
      Returns:
      the smallest (closest to negative infinity) floating-point value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
    • floor

      public static double floor(double a)
      Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases:
      • If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
      • If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
      Parameters:
      a - a value.
      Returns:
      the largest (closest to positive infinity) floating-point value that less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
    • rint

      public static double rint(double a)
      Returns the double value that is closest in value to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. If two double values that are mathematical integers are equally close to the value of the argument, the result is the integer value that is even. Special cases:
      • If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
      • If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
      Parameters:
      a - a value.
      Returns:
      the closest floating-point value to a that is equal to a mathematical integer.
    • atan2

      public static double atan2(double y, double x)
      Returns the angle theta from the conversion of rectangular coordinates (xy) to polar coordinates (r, theta). This method computes the phase theta by computing an arc tangent of y/x in the range of -pi to pi. Special cases:
      • If either argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is positive, or the first argument is positive and finite and the second argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive zero.
      • If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is positive, or the first argument is negative and finite and the second argument is positive infinity, then the result is negative zero.
      • If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is negative, or the first argument is positive and finite and the second argument is negative infinity, then the result is the double value closest to pi.
      • If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is negative, or the first argument is negative and finite and the second argument is negative infinity, then the result is the double value closest to -pi.
      • If the first argument is positive and the second argument is positive zero or negative zero, or the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is finite, then the result is the double value closest to pi/2.
      • If the first argument is negative and the second argument is positive zero or negative zero, or the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is finite, then the result is the double value closest to -pi/2.
      • If both arguments are positive infinity, then the result is the double value closest to pi/4.
      • If the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is negative infinity, then the result is the double value closest to 3*pi/4.
      • If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is positive infinity, then the result is the double value closest to -pi/4.
      • If both arguments are negative infinity, then the result is the double value closest to -3*pi/4.
      Parameters:
      y - the ordinate coordinate
      x - the abscissa coordinate
      Returns:
      the theta component of the point (rtheta) in polar coordinates that corresponds to the point (xy) in Cartesian coordinates.
    • pow

      public static double pow(double a, double b)
      Returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. Special cases:
      • If the second argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is 1.0.
      • If the second argument is 1.0, then the result is the same as the first argument.
      • If the second argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the first argument is NaN and the second argument is nonzero, then the result is NaN.
      • If
        • the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity, or
        • the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity,
        then the result is positive infinity.
      • If
        • the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity, or
        • the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity,
        then the result is positive zero.
      • If the absolute value of the first argument equals 1 and the second argument is infinite, then the result is NaN.
      • If
        • the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is greater than zero, or
        • the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is less than zero,
        then the result is positive zero.
      • If
        • the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is less than zero, or
        • the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is greater than zero,
        then the result is positive infinity.
      • If
        • the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer, or
        • the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer,
        then the result is positive zero.
      • If
        • the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer, or
        • the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer,
        then the result is negative zero.
      • If
        • the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer, or
        • the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer,
        then the result is positive infinity.
      • If
        • the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer, or
        • the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer,
        then the result is negative infinity.
      • If the first argument is finite and less than zero
        • if the second argument is a finite even integer, the result is equal to the result of raising the absolute value of the first argument to the power of the second argument
        • if the second argument is a finite odd integer, the result is equal to the negative of the result of raising the absolute value of the first argument to the power of the second argument
        • if the second argument is finite and not an integer, then the result is NaN.
      • If both arguments are integers, then the result is exactly equal to the mathematical result of raising the first argument to the power of the second argument if that result can in fact be represented exactly as a double value.

      (In the foregoing descriptions, a floating-point value is considered to be an integer if and only if it is finite and a fixed point of the method ceil or, equivalently, a fixed point of the method floor. A value is a fixed point of a one-argument method if and only if the result of applying the method to the value is equal to the value.)

      Parameters:
      a - base.
      b - the exponent.
      Returns:
      the value ab.
    • round

      public static int round(float a)
      Returns the closest int to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity.

      Special cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, the result is 0.
      • If the argument is negative infinity or any value less than or equal to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE, the result is equal to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE.
      • If the argument is positive infinity or any value greater than or equal to the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE, the result is equal to the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE.
      Parameters:
      a - a floating-point value to be rounded to an integer.
      Returns:
      the value of the argument rounded to the nearest int value.
      See Also:
      Integer.MAX_VALUE, Integer.MIN_VALUE
    • round

      public static long round(double a)
      Returns the closest long to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity.

      Special cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, the result is 0.
      • If the argument is negative infinity or any value less than or equal to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE, the result is equal to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE.
      • If the argument is positive infinity or any value greater than or equal to the value of Long.MAX_VALUE, the result is equal to the value of Long.MAX_VALUE.
      Parameters:
      a - a floating-point value to be rounded to a long.
      Returns:
      the value of the argument rounded to the nearest long value.
      See Also:
      Long.MAX_VALUE, Long.MIN_VALUE
    • random

      public static double random()
      Returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0. Returned values are chosen pseudorandomly with (approximately) uniform distribution from that range.

      When this method is first called, it creates a single new pseudorandom-number generator, exactly as if by the expression

      new java.util.Random()
      This new pseudorandom-number generator is used thereafter for all calls to this method and is used nowhere else.

      This method is properly synchronized to allow correct use by more than one thread. However, if many threads need to generate pseudorandom numbers at a great rate, it may reduce contention for each thread to have its own pseudorandom-number generator.

      Returns:
      a pseudorandom double greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0.
      See Also:
      Random.nextDouble()
    • addExact

      public static int addExact(int x, int y)
      Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows an int
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.addExact(int,int)
    • addExact

      public static long addExact(long x, long y)
      Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows a long
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.addExact(long,long)
    • subtractExact

      public static int subtractExact(int x, int y)
      Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value to subtract from the first
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows an int
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.subtractExact(int,int)
    • subtractExact

      public static long subtractExact(long x, long y)
      Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value to subtract from the first
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows a long
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.subtractExact(long,long)
    • multiplyExact

      public static int multiplyExact(int x, int y)
      Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows an int
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.multiplyExact(int,int)
    • multiplyExact

      public static long multiplyExact(long x, int y)
      Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows a long
      Since:
      9
      See Also:
      Math.multiplyExact(long,int)
    • multiplyExact

      public static long multiplyExact(long x, long y)
      Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows a long
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.multiplyExact(long,long)
    • incrementExact

      public static int incrementExact(int a)
      Returns the argument incremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. The overflow only occurs for the maximum value.
      Parameters:
      a - the value to increment
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows an int
      Since:
      14
      See Also:
      Math.incrementExact(int)
    • incrementExact

      public static long incrementExact(long a)
      Returns the argument incremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. The overflow only occurs for the maximum value.
      Parameters:
      a - the value to increment
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows a long
      Since:
      14
      See Also:
      Math.incrementExact(long)
    • decrementExact

      public static int decrementExact(int a)
      Returns the argument decremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. The overflow only occurs for the minimum value.
      Parameters:
      a - the value to decrement
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows an int
      Since:
      14
      See Also:
      Math.decrementExact(int)
    • decrementExact

      public static long decrementExact(long a)
      Returns the argument decremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. The overflow only occurs for the minimum value.
      Parameters:
      a - the value to decrement
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows a long
      Since:
      14
      See Also:
      Math.decrementExact(long)
    • negateExact

      public static int negateExact(int a)
      Returns the negation of the argument, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. The overflow only occurs for the minimum value.
      Parameters:
      a - the value to negate
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows an int
      Since:
      14
      See Also:
      Math.negateExact(int)
    • negateExact

      public static long negateExact(long a)
      Returns the negation of the argument, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. The overflow only occurs for the minimum value.
      Parameters:
      a - the value to negate
      Returns:
      the result
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the result overflows a long
      Since:
      14
      See Also:
      Math.negateExact(long)
    • toIntExact

      public static int toIntExact(long value)
      Returns the value of the long argument, throwing an exception if the value overflows an int.
      Parameters:
      value - the long value
      Returns:
      the argument as an int
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the argument overflows an int
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.toIntExact(long)
    • multiplyFull

      public static long multiplyFull(int x, int y)
      Returns the exact mathematical product of the arguments.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value
      Returns:
      the result
      Since:
      9
      See Also:
      Math.multiplyFull(int,int)
    • multiplyHigh

      public static long multiplyHigh(long x, long y)
      Returns as a long the most significant 64 bits of the 128-bit product of two 64-bit factors.
      Parameters:
      x - the first value
      y - the second value
      Returns:
      the result
      Since:
      9
      See Also:
      Math.multiplyHigh(long,long)
    • floorDiv

      public static int floorDiv(int x, int y)
      Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) int value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. There is one special case, if the dividend is the Integer.MIN_VALUE and the divisor is -1, then integer overflow occurs and the result is equal to the Integer.MIN_VALUE.

      See Math.floorDiv for examples and a comparison to the integer division / operator.

      Parameters:
      x - the dividend
      y - the divisor
      Returns:
      the largest (closest to positive infinity) int value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the divisor y is zero
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.floorDiv(int, int), Math.floor(double)
    • floorDiv

      public static long floorDiv(long x, int y)
      Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) long value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. There is one special case, if the dividend is the Long.MIN_VALUE and the divisor is -1, then integer overflow occurs and the result is equal to Long.MIN_VALUE.

      See Math.floorDiv for examples and a comparison to the integer division / operator.

      Parameters:
      x - the dividend
      y - the divisor
      Returns:
      the largest (closest to positive infinity) int value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the divisor y is zero
      Since:
      9
      See Also:
      Math.floorDiv(long, int), Math.floor(double)
    • floorDiv

      public static long floorDiv(long x, long y)
      Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) long value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. There is one special case, if the dividend is the Long.MIN_VALUE and the divisor is -1, then integer overflow occurs and the result is equal to the Long.MIN_VALUE.

      See Math.floorDiv for examples and a comparison to the integer division / operator.

      Parameters:
      x - the dividend
      y - the divisor
      Returns:
      the largest (closest to positive infinity) long value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the divisor y is zero
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.floorDiv(long, long), Math.floor(double)
    • floorMod

      public static int floorMod(int x, int y)
      Returns the floor modulus of the int arguments.

      The floor modulus is x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y), has the same sign as the divisor y, and is in the range of -abs(y) < r < +abs(y).

      The relationship between floorDiv and floorMod is such that:

      • floorDiv(x, y) * y + floorMod(x, y) == x

      See Math.floorMod for examples and a comparison to the % operator.

      Parameters:
      x - the dividend
      y - the divisor
      Returns:
      the floor modulus x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y)
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the divisor y is zero
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.floorMod(int, int), floorDiv(int, int)
    • floorMod

      public static int floorMod(long x, int y)
      Returns the floor modulus of the long and int arguments.

      The floor modulus is x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y), has the same sign as the divisor y, and is in the range of -abs(y) < r < +abs(y).

      The relationship between floorDiv and floorMod is such that:

      • floorDiv(x, y) * y + floorMod(x, y) == x

      See Math.floorMod for examples and a comparison to the % operator.

      Parameters:
      x - the dividend
      y - the divisor
      Returns:
      the floor modulus x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y)
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the divisor y is zero
      Since:
      9
      See Also:
      Math.floorMod(long, int), floorDiv(long, int)
    • floorMod

      public static long floorMod(long x, long y)
      Returns the floor modulus of the long arguments.

      The floor modulus is x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y), has the same sign as the divisor y, and is in the range of -abs(y) < r < +abs(y).

      The relationship between floorDiv and floorMod is such that:

      • floorDiv(x, y) * y + floorMod(x, y) == x

      See Math.floorMod for examples and a comparison to the % operator.

      Parameters:
      x - the dividend
      y - the divisor
      Returns:
      the floor modulus x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y)
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the divisor y is zero
      Since:
      1.8
      See Also:
      Math.floorMod(long, long), floorDiv(long, long)
    • abs

      public static int abs(int a)
      Returns the absolute value of an int value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

      Note that if the argument is equal to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE, the most negative representable int value, the result is that same value, which is negative. In contrast, the absExact(int) method throws an ArithmeticException for this value.

      Parameters:
      a - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined.
      Returns:
      the absolute value of the argument.
      See Also:
      Math.absExact(int)
    • absExact

      public static int absExact(int a)
      Returns the mathematical absolute value of an int value if it is exactly representable as an int, throwing ArithmeticException if the result overflows the positive int range.

      Since the range of two's complement integers is asymmetric with one additional negative value (JLS 4.2.1), the mathematical absolute value of Integer.MIN_VALUE overflows the positive int range, so an exception is thrown for that argument.

      Parameters:
      a - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
      Returns:
      the absolute value of the argument, unless overflow occurs
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the argument is Integer.MIN_VALUE
      Since:
      15
      See Also:
      Math.abs(int), Math.absExact(int)
    • abs

      public static long abs(long a)
      Returns the absolute value of a long value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

      Note that if the argument is equal to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE, the most negative representable long value, the result is that same value, which is negative. In contrast, the absExact(long) method throws an ArithmeticException for this value.

      Parameters:
      a - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined.
      Returns:
      the absolute value of the argument.
      See Also:
      Math.absExact(long)
    • absExact

      public static long absExact(long a)
      Returns the mathematical absolute value of an long value if it is exactly representable as an long, throwing ArithmeticException if the result overflows the positive long range.

      Since the range of two's complement integers is asymmetric with one additional negative value (JLS 4.2.1), the mathematical absolute value of Long.MIN_VALUE overflows the positive long range, so an exception is thrown for that argument.

      Parameters:
      a - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
      Returns:
      the absolute value of the argument, unless overflow occurs
      Throws:
      ArithmeticException - if the argument is Long.MIN_VALUE
      Since:
      15
      See Also:
      Math.abs(long), Math.absExact(long)
    • abs

      public static float abs(float a)
      Returns the absolute value of a float value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases:
      • If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, the result is positive zero.
      • If the argument is infinite, the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      API Note:
      As implied by the above, one valid implementation of this method is given by the expression below which computes a float with the same exponent and significand as the argument but with a guaranteed zero sign bit indicating a positive value:
      Float.intBitsToFloat(0x7fffffff & Float.floatToRawIntBits(a))
      Parameters:
      a - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
      Returns:
      the absolute value of the argument.
    • abs

      public static double abs(double a)
      Returns the absolute value of a double value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases:
      • If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, the result is positive zero.
      • If the argument is infinite, the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      API Note:
      As implied by the above, one valid implementation of this method is given by the expression below which computes a double with the same exponent and significand as the argument but with a guaranteed zero sign bit indicating a positive value:
      Double.longBitsToDouble((Double.doubleToRawLongBits(a)<<1)>>>1)
      Parameters:
      a - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
      Returns:
      the absolute value of the argument.
    • max

      public static int max(int a, int b)
      Returns the greater of two int values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the larger of a and b.
    • max

      public static long max(long a, long b)
      Returns the greater of two long values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of Long.MAX_VALUE. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the larger of a and b.
    • max

      public static float max(float a, float b)
      Returns the greater of two float values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the larger of a and b.
    • max

      public static double max(double a, double b)
      Returns the greater of two double values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the larger of a and b.
    • min

      public static int min(int a, int b)
      Returns the smaller of two int values. That is, the result the argument closer to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the smaller of a and b.
    • min

      public static long min(long a, long b)
      Returns the smaller of two long values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the smaller of a and b.
    • min

      public static float min(float a, float b)
      Returns the smaller of two float values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the smaller of a and b.
    • min

      public static double min(double a, double b)
      Returns the smaller of two double values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.
      Parameters:
      a - an argument.
      b - another argument.
      Returns:
      the smaller of a and b.
    • fma

      public static double fma(double a, double b, double c)
      Returns the fused multiply add of the three arguments; that is, returns the exact product of the first two arguments summed with the third argument and then rounded once to the nearest double. The rounding is done using the round to nearest even rounding mode. In contrast, if a * b + c is evaluated as a regular floating-point expression, two rounding errors are involved, the first for the multiply operation, the second for the addition operation.

      Special cases:

      • If any argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If one of the first two arguments is infinite and the other is zero, the result is NaN.
      • If the exact product of the first two arguments is infinite (in other words, at least one of the arguments is infinite and the other is neither zero nor NaN) and the third argument is an infinity of the opposite sign, the result is NaN.

      Note that fusedMac(a, 1.0, c) returns the same result as (a + c). However, fusedMac(a, b, +0.0) does not always return the same result as (a * b) since fusedMac(-0.0, +0.0, +0.0) is +0.0 while (-0.0 * +0.0) is -0.0; fusedMac(a, b, -0.0) is equivalent to (a * b) however.

      API Note:
      This method corresponds to the fusedMultiplyAdd operation defined in IEEE 754-2008.
      Parameters:
      a - a value
      b - a value
      c - a value
      Returns:
      (a × b + c) computed, as if with unlimited range and precision, and rounded once to the nearest double value
      Since:
      9
    • fma

      public static float fma(float a, float b, float c)
      Returns the fused multiply add of the three arguments; that is, returns the exact product of the first two arguments summed with the third argument and then rounded once to the nearest float. The rounding is done using the round to nearest even rounding mode. In contrast, if a * b + c is evaluated as a regular floating-point expression, two rounding errors are involved, the first for the multiply operation, the second for the addition operation.

      Special cases:

      • If any argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If one of the first two arguments is infinite and the other is zero, the result is NaN.
      • If the exact product of the first two arguments is infinite (in other words, at least one of the arguments is infinite and the other is neither zero nor NaN) and the third argument is an infinity of the opposite sign, the result is NaN.

      Note that fma(a, 1.0f, c) returns the same result as (a + c). However, fma(a, b, +0.0f) does not always return the same result as (a * b) since fma(-0.0f, +0.0f, +0.0f) is +0.0f while (-0.0f * +0.0f) is -0.0f; fma(a, b, -0.0f) is equivalent to (a * b) however.

      API Note:
      This method corresponds to the fusedMultiplyAdd operation defined in IEEE 754-2008.
      Parameters:
      a - a value
      b - a value
      c - a value
      Returns:
      (a × b + c) computed, as if with unlimited range and precision, and rounded once to the nearest float value
      Since:
      9
    • ulp

      public static double ulp(double d)
      Returns the size of an ulp of the argument. An ulp, unit in the last place, of a double value is the positive distance between this floating-point value and the double value next larger in magnitude. Note that for non-NaN x, ulp(-x) == ulp(x).

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive or negative infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is Double.MIN_VALUE.
      • If the argument is ±Double.MAX_VALUE, then the result is equal to 2971.
      Parameters:
      d - the floating-point value whose ulp is to be returned
      Returns:
      the size of an ulp of the argument
      Since:
      1.5
    • ulp

      public static float ulp(float f)
      Returns the size of an ulp of the argument. An ulp, unit in the last place, of a float value is the positive distance between this floating-point value and the float value next larger in magnitude. Note that for non-NaN x, ulp(-x) == ulp(x).

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive or negative infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is Float.MIN_VALUE.
      • If the argument is ±Float.MAX_VALUE, then the result is equal to 2104.
      Parameters:
      f - the floating-point value whose ulp is to be returned
      Returns:
      the size of an ulp of the argument
      Since:
      1.5
    • signum

      public static double signum(double d)
      Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0 if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0 if the argument is less than zero.

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
      Parameters:
      d - the floating-point value whose signum is to be returned
      Returns:
      the signum function of the argument
      Since:
      1.5
    • signum

      public static float signum(float f)
      Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0f if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0f if the argument is less than zero.

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
      Parameters:
      f - the floating-point value whose signum is to be returned
      Returns:
      the signum function of the argument
      Since:
      1.5
    • sinh

      public static double sinh(double x)
      Returns the hyperbolic sine of a double value. The hyperbolic sine of x is defined to be (ex - e-x)/2 where e is Euler's number.

      Special cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is infinite, then the result is an infinity with the same sign as the argument.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      x - The number whose hyperbolic sine is to be returned.
      Returns:
      The hyperbolic sine of x.
      Since:
      1.5
    • cosh

      public static double cosh(double x)
      Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a double value. The hyperbolic cosine of x is defined to be (ex + e-x)/2 where e is Euler's number.

      Special cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is infinite, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is 1.0.
      Parameters:
      x - The number whose hyperbolic cosine is to be returned.
      Returns:
      The hyperbolic cosine of x.
      Since:
      1.5
    • tanh

      public static double tanh(double x)
      Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a double value. The hyperbolic tangent of x is defined to be (ex - e-x)/(ex + e-x), in other words, sinh(x)/cosh(x). Note that the absolute value of the exact tanh is always less than 1.

      Special cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is +1.0.
      • If the argument is negative infinity, then the result is -1.0.
      Parameters:
      x - The number whose hyperbolic tangent is to be returned.
      Returns:
      The hyperbolic tangent of x.
      Since:
      1.5
    • hypot

      public static double hypot(double x, double y)
      Returns sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow.

      Special cases:

      • If either argument is infinite, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If either argument is NaN and neither argument is infinite, then the result is NaN.
      Parameters:
      x - a value
      y - a value
      Returns:
      sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow
      Since:
      1.5
    • expm1

      public static double expm1(double x)
      Returns ex -1. Note that for values of x near 0, the exact sum of expm1(x) + 1 is much closer to the true result of ex than exp(x).

      Special cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is negative infinity, then the result is -1.0.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      x - the exponent to raise e to in the computation of ex -1.
      Returns:
      the value ex - 1.
      Since:
      1.5
    • log1p

      public static double log1p(double x)
      Returns the natural logarithm of the sum of the argument and 1. Note that for small values x, the result of log1p(x) is much closer to the true result of ln(1 + x) than the floating-point evaluation of log(1.0+x).

      Special cases:

      • If the argument is NaN or less than -1, then the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is negative one, then the result is negative infinity.
      • If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
      Parameters:
      x - a value
      Returns:
      the value ln(x + 1), the natural log of x + 1
      Since:
      1.5
    • copySign

      public static double copySign(double magnitude, double sign)
      Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. For this method, a NaN sign argument is always treated as if it were positive.
      Parameters:
      magnitude - the parameter providing the magnitude of the result
      sign - the parameter providing the sign of the result
      Returns:
      a value with the magnitude of magnitude and the sign of sign.
      Since:
      1.6
    • copySign

      public static float copySign(float magnitude, float sign)
      Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. For this method, a NaN sign argument is always treated as if it were positive.
      Parameters:
      magnitude - the parameter providing the magnitude of the result
      sign - the parameter providing the sign of the result
      Returns:
      a value with the magnitude of magnitude and the sign of sign.
      Since:
      1.6
    • getExponent

      public static int getExponent(float f)
      Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a float. Special cases:
      Parameters:
      f - a float value
      Returns:
      the unbiased exponent of the argument
      Since:
      1.6
    • getExponent

      public static int getExponent(double d)
      Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a double. Special cases:
      Parameters:
      d - a double value
      Returns:
      the unbiased exponent of the argument
      Since:
      1.6
    • nextAfter

      public static double nextAfter(double start, double direction)
      Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. If both arguments compare as equal the second argument is returned.

      Special cases:

      • If either argument is a NaN, then NaN is returned.
      • If both arguments are signed zeros, direction is returned unchanged (as implied by the requirement of returning the second argument if the arguments compare as equal).
      • If start is ±Double.MIN_VALUE and direction has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, then a zero with the same sign as start is returned.
      • If start is infinite and direction has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, Double.MAX_VALUE with the same sign as start is returned.
      • If start is equal to ± Double.MAX_VALUE and direction has a value such that the result should have a larger magnitude, an infinity with same sign as start is returned.
      Parameters:
      start - starting floating-point value
      direction - value indicating which of start's neighbors or start should be returned
      Returns:
      The floating-point number adjacent to start in the direction of direction.
      Since:
      1.6
    • nextAfter

      public static float nextAfter(float start, double direction)
      Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. If both arguments compare as equal a value equivalent to the second argument is returned.

      Special cases:

      • If either argument is a NaN, then NaN is returned.
      • If both arguments are signed zeros, a value equivalent to direction is returned.
      • If start is ±Float.MIN_VALUE and direction has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, then a zero with the same sign as start is returned.
      • If start is infinite and direction has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, Float.MAX_VALUE with the same sign as start is returned.
      • If start is equal to ± Float.MAX_VALUE and direction has a value such that the result should have a larger magnitude, an infinity with same sign as start is returned.
      Parameters:
      start - starting floating-point value
      direction - value indicating which of start's neighbors or start should be returned
      Returns:
      The floating-point number adjacent to start in the direction of direction.
      Since:
      1.6
    • nextUp

      public static double nextUp(double d)
      Returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of positive infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to nextAfter(d, Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY); however, a nextUp implementation may run faster than its equivalent nextAfter call.

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is zero, the result is Double.MIN_VALUE
      Parameters:
      d - starting floating-point value
      Returns:
      The adjacent floating-point value closer to positive infinity.
      Since:
      1.6
    • nextUp

      public static float nextUp(float f)
      Returns the floating-point value adjacent to f in the direction of positive infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to nextAfter(f, Float.POSITIVE_INFINITY); however, a nextUp implementation may run faster than its equivalent nextAfter call.

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is positive infinity, the result is positive infinity.
      • If the argument is zero, the result is Float.MIN_VALUE
      Parameters:
      f - starting floating-point value
      Returns:
      The adjacent floating-point value closer to positive infinity.
      Since:
      1.6
    • nextDown

      public static double nextDown(double d)
      Returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of negative infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to nextAfter(d, Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY); however, a nextDown implementation may run faster than its equivalent nextAfter call.

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is negative infinity, the result is negative infinity.
      • If the argument is zero, the result is -Double.MIN_VALUE
      Parameters:
      d - starting floating-point value
      Returns:
      The adjacent floating-point value closer to negative infinity.
      Since:
      1.8
    • nextDown

      public static float nextDown(float f)
      Returns the floating-point value adjacent to f in the direction of negative infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to nextAfter(f, Float.NEGATIVE_INFINITY); however, a nextDown implementation may run faster than its equivalent nextAfter call.

      Special Cases:

      • If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
      • If the argument is negative infinity, the result is negative infinity.
      • If the argument is zero, the result is -Float.MIN_VALUE
      Parameters:
      f - starting floating-point value
      Returns:
      The adjacent floating-point value closer to negative infinity.
      Since:
      1.8
    • scalb

      public static double scalb(double d, int scaleFactor)
      Returns d × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the double value set. See the Java Language Specification for a discussion of floating-point value sets. If the exponent of the result is between Double.MIN_EXPONENT and Double.MAX_EXPONENT, the answer is calculated exactly. If the exponent of the result would be larger than Double.MAX_EXPONENT, an infinity is returned. Note that if the result is subnormal, precision may be lost; that is, when scalb(x, n) is subnormal, scalb(scalb(x, n), -n) may not equal x. When the result is non-NaN, the result has the same sign as d.

      Special cases:

      • If the first argument is NaN, NaN is returned.
      • If the first argument is infinite, then an infinity of the same sign is returned.
      • If the first argument is zero, then a zero of the same sign is returned.
      Parameters:
      d - number to be scaled by a power of two.
      scaleFactor - power of 2 used to scale d
      Returns:
      d × 2scaleFactor
      Since:
      1.6
    • scalb

      public static float scalb(float f, int scaleFactor)
      Returns f × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the float value set. See the Java Language Specification for a discussion of floating-point value sets. If the exponent of the result is between Float.MIN_EXPONENT and Float.MAX_EXPONENT, the answer is calculated exactly. If the exponent of the result would be larger than Float.MAX_EXPONENT, an infinity is returned. Note that if the result is subnormal, precision may be lost; that is, when scalb(x, n) is subnormal, scalb(scalb(x, n), -n) may not equal x. When the result is non-NaN, the result has the same sign as f.

      Special cases:

      • If the first argument is NaN, NaN is returned.
      • If the first argument is infinite, then an infinity of the same sign is returned.
      • If the first argument is zero, then a zero of the same sign is returned.
      Parameters:
      f - number to be scaled by a power of two.
      scaleFactor - power of 2 used to scale f
      Returns:
      f × 2scaleFactor
      Since:
      1.6