Module java.base
Package java.text

Class Bidi

java.lang.Object
java.text.Bidi

public final class Bidi extends Object
This class implements the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm.

A Bidi object provides information on the bidirectional reordering of the text used to create it. This is required, for example, to properly display Arabic or Hebrew text. These languages are inherently mixed directional, as they order numbers from left-to-right while ordering most other text from right-to-left.

Once created, a Bidi object can be queried to see if the text it represents is all left-to-right or all right-to-left. Such objects are very lightweight and this text is relatively easy to process.

If there are multiple runs of text, information about the runs can be accessed by indexing to get the start, limit, and level of a run. The level represents both the direction and the 'nesting level' of a directional run. Odd levels are right-to-left, while even levels are left-to-right. So for example level 0 represents left-to-right text, while level 1 represents right-to-left text, and level 2 represents left-to-right text embedded in a right-to-left run.

Since:
1.4
  • Field Summary

    Fields
    Modifier and Type
    Field
    Description
    static final int
    Constant indicating that the base direction depends on the first strong directional character in the text according to the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm.
    static final int
    Constant indicating that the base direction depends on the first strong directional character in the text according to the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm.
    static final int
    Constant indicating base direction is left-to-right.
    static final int
    Constant indicating base direction is right-to-left.
  • Constructor Summary

    Constructors
    Constructor
    Description
    Bidi​(char[] text, int textStart, byte[] embeddings, int embStart, int paragraphLength, int flags)
    Create Bidi from the given text, embedding, and direction information.
    Bidi​(String paragraph, int flags)
    Create Bidi from the given paragraph of text and base direction.
    Create Bidi from the given paragraph of text.
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type
    Method
    Description
    boolean
    Return true if the base direction is left-to-right.
    createLineBidi​(int lineStart, int lineLimit)
    Create a Bidi object representing the bidi information on a line of text within the paragraph represented by the current Bidi.
    int
    Return the base level (0 if left-to-right, 1 if right-to-left).
    int
    Return the length of text in the line.
    int
    getLevelAt​(int offset)
    Return the resolved level of the character at offset.
    int
    Return the number of level runs.
    int
    getRunLevel​(int run)
    Return the level of the nth logical run in this line.
    int
    getRunLimit​(int run)
    Return the index of the character past the end of the nth logical run in this line, as an offset from the start of the line.
    int
    getRunStart​(int run)
    Return the index of the character at the start of the nth logical run in this line, as an offset from the start of the line.
    boolean
    Return true if the line is all left-to-right text and the base direction is left-to-right.
    boolean
    Return true if the line is not left-to-right or right-to-left.
    boolean
    Return true if the line is all right-to-left text, and the base direction is right-to-left.
    static void
    reorderVisually​(byte[] levels, int levelStart, Object[] objects, int objectStart, int count)
    Reorder the objects in the array into visual order based on their levels.
    static boolean
    requiresBidi​(char[] text, int start, int limit)
    Return true if the specified text requires bidi analysis.
    Display the bidi internal state, used in debugging.

    Methods declared in class java.lang.Object

    clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
  • Field Details

    • DIRECTION_LEFT_TO_RIGHT

      public static final int DIRECTION_LEFT_TO_RIGHT
      Constant indicating base direction is left-to-right.
      See Also:
      Constant Field Values
    • DIRECTION_RIGHT_TO_LEFT

      public static final int DIRECTION_RIGHT_TO_LEFT
      Constant indicating base direction is right-to-left.
      See Also:
      Constant Field Values
    • DIRECTION_DEFAULT_LEFT_TO_RIGHT

      public static final int DIRECTION_DEFAULT_LEFT_TO_RIGHT
      Constant indicating that the base direction depends on the first strong directional character in the text according to the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. If no strong directional character is present, the base direction is left-to-right.
      See Also:
      Constant Field Values
    • DIRECTION_DEFAULT_RIGHT_TO_LEFT

      public static final int DIRECTION_DEFAULT_RIGHT_TO_LEFT
      Constant indicating that the base direction depends on the first strong directional character in the text according to the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. If no strong directional character is present, the base direction is right-to-left.
      See Also:
      Constant Field Values
  • Constructor Details

    • Bidi

      public Bidi(String paragraph, int flags)
      Create Bidi from the given paragraph of text and base direction.
      Parameters:
      paragraph - a paragraph of text
      flags - a collection of flags that control the algorithm. The algorithm understands the flags DIRECTION_LEFT_TO_RIGHT, DIRECTION_RIGHT_TO_LEFT, DIRECTION_DEFAULT_LEFT_TO_RIGHT, and DIRECTION_DEFAULT_RIGHT_TO_LEFT. Other values are reserved.
    • Bidi

      public Bidi(AttributedCharacterIterator paragraph)
      Create Bidi from the given paragraph of text.

      The RUN_DIRECTION attribute in the text, if present, determines the base direction (left-to-right or right-to-left). If not present, the base direction is computes using the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm, defaulting to left-to-right if there are no strong directional characters in the text. This attribute, if present, must be applied to all the text in the paragraph.

      The BIDI_EMBEDDING attribute in the text, if present, represents embedding level information. Negative values from -1 to -62 indicate overrides at the absolute value of the level. Positive values from 1 to 62 indicate embeddings. Where values are zero or not defined, the base embedding level as determined by the base direction is assumed.

      The NUMERIC_SHAPING attribute in the text, if present, converts European digits to other decimal digits before running the bidi algorithm. This attribute, if present, must be applied to all the text in the paragraph.

      Parameters:
      paragraph - a paragraph of text with optional character and paragraph attribute information
      See Also:
      TextAttribute.BIDI_EMBEDDING, TextAttribute.NUMERIC_SHAPING, TextAttribute.RUN_DIRECTION
    • Bidi

      public Bidi(char[] text, int textStart, byte[] embeddings, int embStart, int paragraphLength, int flags)
      Create Bidi from the given text, embedding, and direction information. The embeddings array may be null. If present, the values represent embedding level information. Negative values from -1 to -61 indicate overrides at the absolute value of the level. Positive values from 1 to 61 indicate embeddings. Where values are zero, the base embedding level as determined by the base direction is assumed.
      Parameters:
      text - an array containing the paragraph of text to process.
      textStart - the index into the text array of the start of the paragraph.
      embeddings - an array containing embedding values for each character in the paragraph. This can be null, in which case it is assumed that there is no external embedding information.
      embStart - the index into the embedding array of the start of the paragraph.
      paragraphLength - the length of the paragraph in the text and embeddings arrays.
      flags - a collection of flags that control the algorithm. The algorithm understands the flags DIRECTION_LEFT_TO_RIGHT, DIRECTION_RIGHT_TO_LEFT, DIRECTION_DEFAULT_LEFT_TO_RIGHT, and DIRECTION_DEFAULT_RIGHT_TO_LEFT. Other values are reserved.
  • Method Details

    • createLineBidi

      public Bidi createLineBidi(int lineStart, int lineLimit)
      Create a Bidi object representing the bidi information on a line of text within the paragraph represented by the current Bidi. This call is not required if the entire paragraph fits on one line.
      Parameters:
      lineStart - the offset from the start of the paragraph to the start of the line.
      lineLimit - the offset from the start of the paragraph to the limit of the line.
      Returns:
      a Bidi object
    • isMixed

      public boolean isMixed()
      Return true if the line is not left-to-right or right-to-left. This means it either has mixed runs of left-to-right and right-to-left text, or the base direction differs from the direction of the only run of text.
      Returns:
      true if the line is not left-to-right or right-to-left.
    • isLeftToRight

      public boolean isLeftToRight()
      Return true if the line is all left-to-right text and the base direction is left-to-right.
      Returns:
      true if the line is all left-to-right text and the base direction is left-to-right
    • isRightToLeft

      public boolean isRightToLeft()
      Return true if the line is all right-to-left text, and the base direction is right-to-left.
      Returns:
      true if the line is all right-to-left text, and the base direction is right-to-left
    • getLength

      public int getLength()
      Return the length of text in the line.
      Returns:
      the length of text in the line
    • baseIsLeftToRight

      public boolean baseIsLeftToRight()
      Return true if the base direction is left-to-right.
      Returns:
      true if the base direction is left-to-right
    • getBaseLevel

      public int getBaseLevel()
      Return the base level (0 if left-to-right, 1 if right-to-left).
      Returns:
      the base level
    • getLevelAt

      public int getLevelAt(int offset)
      Return the resolved level of the character at offset. If offset is < 0 or ≥ the length of the line, return the base direction level.
      Parameters:
      offset - the index of the character for which to return the level
      Returns:
      the resolved level of the character at offset
    • getRunCount

      public int getRunCount()
      Return the number of level runs.
      Returns:
      the number of level runs
    • getRunLevel

      public int getRunLevel(int run)
      Return the level of the nth logical run in this line.
      Parameters:
      run - the index of the run, between 0 and getRunCount()
      Returns:
      the level of the run
    • getRunStart

      public int getRunStart(int run)
      Return the index of the character at the start of the nth logical run in this line, as an offset from the start of the line.
      Parameters:
      run - the index of the run, between 0 and getRunCount()
      Returns:
      the start of the run
    • getRunLimit

      public int getRunLimit(int run)
      Return the index of the character past the end of the nth logical run in this line, as an offset from the start of the line. For example, this will return the length of the line for the last run on the line.
      Parameters:
      run - the index of the run, between 0 and getRunCount()
      Returns:
      limit the limit of the run
    • requiresBidi

      public static boolean requiresBidi(char[] text, int start, int limit)
      Return true if the specified text requires bidi analysis. If this returns false, the text will display left-to-right. Clients can then avoid constructing a Bidi object. Text in the Arabic Presentation Forms area of Unicode is presumed to already be shaped and ordered for display, and so will not cause this function to return true.
      Parameters:
      text - the text containing the characters to test
      start - the start of the range of characters to test
      limit - the limit of the range of characters to test
      Returns:
      true if the range of characters requires bidi analysis
    • reorderVisually

      public static void reorderVisually(byte[] levels, int levelStart, Object[] objects, int objectStart, int count)
      Reorder the objects in the array into visual order based on their levels. This is a utility function to use when you have a collection of objects representing runs of text in logical order, each run containing text at a single level. The elements at index from objectStart up to objectStart + count in the objects array will be reordered into visual order assuming each run of text has the level indicated by the corresponding element in the levels array (at index - objectStart + levelStart).
      Parameters:
      levels - an array representing the bidi level of each object
      levelStart - the start position in the levels array
      objects - the array of objects to be reordered into visual order
      objectStart - the start position in the objects array
      count - the number of objects to reorder
    • toString

      public String toString()
      Display the bidi internal state, used in debugging.
      Overrides:
      toString in class Object
      Returns:
      a string representation of the object.