Module java.base
Package java.util

Class Hashtable<K,​V>

java.lang.Object
java.util.Dictionary<K,​V>
java.util.Hashtable<K,​V>
Type Parameters:
K - the type of keys maintained by this map
V - the type of mapped values
All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, Cloneable, Map<K,​V>
Direct Known Subclasses:
Properties, UIDefaults

public class Hashtable<K,​V>
extends Dictionary<K,​V>
implements Map<K,​V>, Cloneable, Serializable
This class implements a hash table, which maps keys to values. Any non-null object can be used as a key or as a value.

To successfully store and retrieve objects from a hashtable, the objects used as keys must implement the hashCode method and the equals method.

An instance of Hashtable has two parameters that affect its performance: initial capacity and load factor. The capacity is the number of buckets in the hash table, and the initial capacity is simply the capacity at the time the hash table is created. Note that the hash table is open: in the case of a "hash collision", a single bucket stores multiple entries, which must be searched sequentially. The load factor is a measure of how full the hash table is allowed to get before its capacity is automatically increased. The initial capacity and load factor parameters are merely hints to the implementation. The exact details as to when and whether the rehash method is invoked are implementation-dependent.

Generally, the default load factor (.75) offers a good tradeoff between time and space costs. Higher values decrease the space overhead but increase the time cost to look up an entry (which is reflected in most Hashtable operations, including get and put).

The initial capacity controls a tradeoff between wasted space and the need for rehash operations, which are time-consuming. No rehash operations will ever occur if the initial capacity is greater than the maximum number of entries the Hashtable will contain divided by its load factor. However, setting the initial capacity too high can waste space.

If many entries are to be made into a Hashtable, creating it with a sufficiently large capacity may allow the entries to be inserted more efficiently than letting it perform automatic rehashing as needed to grow the table.

This example creates a hashtable of numbers. It uses the names of the numbers as keys:

   
   Hashtable<String, Integer> numbers
     = new Hashtable<String, Integer>();
   numbers.put("one", 1);
   numbers.put("two", 2);
   numbers.put("three", 3);

To retrieve a number, use the following code:

   
   Integer n = numbers.get("two");
   if (n != null) {
     System.out.println("two = " + n);
   }

The iterators returned by the iterator method of the collections returned by all of this class's "collection view methods" are fail-fast: if the Hashtable is structurally modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own remove method, the iterator will throw a ConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future. The Enumerations returned by Hashtable's keys and elements methods are not fail-fast; if the Hashtable is structurally modified at any time after the enumeration is created then the results of enumerating are undefined.

Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators throw ConcurrentModificationException on a best-effort basis. Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this exception for its correctness: the fail-fast behavior of iterators should be used only to detect bugs.

As of the Java 2 platform v1.2, this class was retrofitted to implement the Map interface, making it a member of the Java Collections Framework. Unlike the new collection implementations, Hashtable is synchronized. If a thread-safe implementation is not needed, it is recommended to use HashMap in place of Hashtable. If a thread-safe highly-concurrent implementation is desired, then it is recommended to use ConcurrentHashMap in place of Hashtable.

Since:
1.0
See Also:
Object.equals(java.lang.Object), Object.hashCode(), rehash(), Collection, Map, HashMap, TreeMap, Serialized Form
  • Constructor Summary

    Constructors
    Constructor Description
    Hashtable()
    Constructs a new, empty hashtable with a default initial capacity (11) and load factor (0.75).
    Hashtable​(int initialCapacity)
    Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial capacity and default load factor (0.75).
    Hashtable​(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor)
    Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial capacity and the specified load factor.
    Hashtable​(Map<? extends K,​? extends V> t)
    Constructs a new hashtable with the same mappings as the given Map.
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type Method Description
    void clear()
    Clears this hashtable so that it contains no keys.
    Object clone()
    Creates a shallow copy of this hashtable.
    V compute​(K key, BiFunction<? super K,​? super V,​? extends V> remappingFunction)
    Attempts to compute a mapping for the specified key and its current mapped value (or null if there is no current mapping).
    V computeIfAbsent​(K key, Function<? super K,​? extends V> mappingFunction)
    If the specified key is not already associated with a value (or is mapped to null), attempts to compute its value using the given mapping function and enters it into this map unless null.
    V computeIfPresent​(K key, BiFunction<? super K,​? super V,​? extends V> remappingFunction)
    If the value for the specified key is present and non-null, attempts to compute a new mapping given the key and its current mapped value.
    boolean contains​(Object value)
    Tests if some key maps into the specified value in this hashtable.
    boolean containsKey​(Object key)
    Tests if the specified object is a key in this hashtable.
    boolean containsValue​(Object value)
    Returns true if this hashtable maps one or more keys to this value.
    Enumeration<V> elements()
    Returns an enumeration of the values in this hashtable.
    Set<Map.Entry<K,​V>> entrySet()
    Returns a Set view of the mappings contained in this map.
    boolean equals​(Object o)
    Compares the specified Object with this Map for equality, as per the definition in the Map interface.
    V get​(Object key)
    Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped, or null if this map contains no mapping for the key.
    int hashCode()
    Returns the hash code value for this Map as per the definition in the Map interface.
    boolean isEmpty()
    Tests if this hashtable maps no keys to values.
    Enumeration<K> keys()
    Returns an enumeration of the keys in this hashtable.
    Set<K> keySet()
    Returns a Set view of the keys contained in this map.
    V merge​(K key, V value, BiFunction<? super V,​? super V,​? extends V> remappingFunction)
    If the specified key is not already associated with a value or is associated with null, associates it with the given non-null value.
    V put​(K key, V value)
    Maps the specified key to the specified value in this hashtable.
    void putAll​(Map<? extends K,​? extends V> t)
    Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this hashtable.
    protected void rehash()
    Increases the capacity of and internally reorganizes this hashtable, in order to accommodate and access its entries more efficiently.
    V remove​(Object key)
    Removes the key (and its corresponding value) from this hashtable.
    int size()
    Returns the number of keys in this hashtable.
    String toString()
    Returns a string representation of this Hashtable object in the form of a set of entries, enclosed in braces and separated by the ASCII characters "" (comma and space).
    Collection<V> values()
    Returns a Collection view of the values contained in this map.

    Methods declared in class java.lang.Object

    finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait

    Methods declared in interface java.util.Map

    forEach, getOrDefault, putIfAbsent, remove, replace, replace, replaceAll
  • Constructor Details

    • Hashtable

      public Hashtable(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor)
      Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial capacity and the specified load factor.
      Parameters:
      initialCapacity - the initial capacity of the hashtable.
      loadFactor - the load factor of the hashtable.
      Throws:
      IllegalArgumentException - if the initial capacity is less than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive.
    • Hashtable

      public Hashtable(int initialCapacity)
      Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial capacity and default load factor (0.75).
      Parameters:
      initialCapacity - the initial capacity of the hashtable.
      Throws:
      IllegalArgumentException - if the initial capacity is less than zero.
    • Hashtable

      public Hashtable()
      Constructs a new, empty hashtable with a default initial capacity (11) and load factor (0.75).
    • Hashtable

      public Hashtable(Map<? extends K,​? extends V> t)
      Constructs a new hashtable with the same mappings as the given Map. The hashtable is created with an initial capacity sufficient to hold the mappings in the given Map and a default load factor (0.75).
      Parameters:
      t - the map whose mappings are to be placed in this map.
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified map is null.
      Since:
      1.2
  • Method Details

    • size

      public int size()
      Returns the number of keys in this hashtable.
      Specified by:
      size in interface Map<K,​V>
      Specified by:
      size in class Dictionary<K,​V>
      Returns:
      the number of keys in this hashtable.
    • isEmpty

      public boolean isEmpty()
      Tests if this hashtable maps no keys to values.
      Specified by:
      isEmpty in interface Map<K,​V>
      Specified by:
      isEmpty in class Dictionary<K,​V>
      Returns:
      true if this hashtable maps no keys to values; false otherwise.
    • keys

      public Enumeration<K> keys()
      Returns an enumeration of the keys in this hashtable. Use the Enumeration methods on the returned object to fetch the keys sequentially. If the hashtable is structurally modified while enumerating over the keys then the results of enumerating are undefined.
      Specified by:
      keys in class Dictionary<K,​V>
      Returns:
      an enumeration of the keys in this hashtable.
      See Also:
      Enumeration, elements(), keySet(), Map
    • elements

      public Enumeration<V> elements()
      Returns an enumeration of the values in this hashtable. Use the Enumeration methods on the returned object to fetch the elements sequentially. If the hashtable is structurally modified while enumerating over the values then the results of enumerating are undefined.
      Specified by:
      elements in class Dictionary<K,​V>
      Returns:
      an enumeration of the values in this hashtable.
      See Also:
      Enumeration, keys(), values(), Map
    • contains

      public boolean contains(Object value)
      Tests if some key maps into the specified value in this hashtable. This operation is more expensive than the containsKey method.

      Note that this method is identical in functionality to containsValue, (which is part of the Map interface in the collections framework).

      Parameters:
      value - a value to search for
      Returns:
      true if and only if some key maps to the value argument in this hashtable as determined by the equals method; false otherwise.
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the value is null
    • containsValue

      public boolean containsValue(Object value)
      Returns true if this hashtable maps one or more keys to this value.

      Note that this method is identical in functionality to contains (which predates the Map interface).

      Specified by:
      containsValue in interface Map<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      value - value whose presence in this hashtable is to be tested
      Returns:
      true if this map maps one or more keys to the specified value
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the value is null
      Since:
      1.2
    • containsKey

      public boolean containsKey(Object key)
      Tests if the specified object is a key in this hashtable.
      Specified by:
      containsKey in interface Map<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - possible key
      Returns:
      true if and only if the specified object is a key in this hashtable, as determined by the equals method; false otherwise.
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the key is null
      See Also:
      contains(Object)
    • get

      public V get(Object key)
      Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped, or null if this map contains no mapping for the key.

      More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key k to a value v such that (key.equals(k)), then this method returns v; otherwise it returns null. (There can be at most one such mapping.)

      Specified by:
      get in interface Map<K,​V>
      Specified by:
      get in class Dictionary<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - the key whose associated value is to be returned
      Returns:
      the value to which the specified key is mapped, or null if this map contains no mapping for the key
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified key is null
      See Also:
      put(Object, Object)
    • rehash

      protected void rehash()
      Increases the capacity of and internally reorganizes this hashtable, in order to accommodate and access its entries more efficiently. This method is called automatically when the number of keys in the hashtable exceeds this hashtable's capacity and load factor.
    • put

      public V put(K key, V value)
      Maps the specified key to the specified value in this hashtable. Neither the key nor the value can be null.

      The value can be retrieved by calling the get method with a key that is equal to the original key.

      Specified by:
      put in interface Map<K,​V>
      Specified by:
      put in class Dictionary<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - the hashtable key
      value - the value
      Returns:
      the previous value of the specified key in this hashtable, or null if it did not have one
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the key or value is null
      See Also:
      Object.equals(Object), get(Object)
    • remove

      public V remove(Object key)
      Removes the key (and its corresponding value) from this hashtable. This method does nothing if the key is not in the hashtable.
      Specified by:
      remove in interface Map<K,​V>
      Specified by:
      remove in class Dictionary<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - the key that needs to be removed
      Returns:
      the value to which the key had been mapped in this hashtable, or null if the key did not have a mapping
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the key is null
    • putAll

      public void putAll(Map<? extends K,​? extends V> t)
      Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this hashtable. These mappings will replace any mappings that this hashtable had for any of the keys currently in the specified map.
      Specified by:
      putAll in interface Map<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      t - mappings to be stored in this map
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified map is null
      Since:
      1.2
    • clear

      public void clear()
      Clears this hashtable so that it contains no keys.
      Specified by:
      clear in interface Map<K,​V>
    • clone

      public Object clone()
      Creates a shallow copy of this hashtable. All the structure of the hashtable itself is copied, but the keys and values are not cloned. This is a relatively expensive operation.
      Overrides:
      clone in class Object
      Returns:
      a clone of the hashtable
      See Also:
      Cloneable
    • toString

      public String toString()
      Returns a string representation of this Hashtable object in the form of a set of entries, enclosed in braces and separated by the ASCII characters "" (comma and space). Each entry is rendered as the key, an equals sign =, and the associated element, where the toString method is used to convert the key and element to strings.
      Overrides:
      toString in class Object
      Returns:
      a string representation of this hashtable
    • keySet

      public Set<K> keySet()
      Returns a Set view of the keys contained in this map. The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through the iterator's own remove operation), the results of the iteration are undefined. The set supports element removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the Iterator.remove, Set.remove, removeAll, retainAll, and clear operations. It does not support the add or addAll operations.
      Specified by:
      keySet in interface Map<K,​V>
      Returns:
      a set view of the keys contained in this map
      Since:
      1.2
    • entrySet

      public Set<Map.Entry<K,​V>> entrySet()
      Returns a Set view of the mappings contained in this map. The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through the iterator's own remove operation, or through the setValue operation on a map entry returned by the iterator) the results of the iteration are undefined. The set supports element removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the Iterator.remove, Set.remove, removeAll, retainAll and clear operations. It does not support the add or addAll operations.
      Specified by:
      entrySet in interface Map<K,​V>
      Returns:
      a set view of the mappings contained in this map
      Since:
      1.2
    • values

      public Collection<V> values()
      Returns a Collection view of the values contained in this map. The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are reflected in the collection, and vice-versa. If the map is modified while an iteration over the collection is in progress (except through the iterator's own remove operation), the results of the iteration are undefined. The collection supports element removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the Iterator.remove, Collection.remove, removeAll, retainAll and clear operations. It does not support the add or addAll operations.
      Specified by:
      values in interface Map<K,​V>
      Returns:
      a collection view of the values contained in this map
      Since:
      1.2
    • equals

      public boolean equals(Object o)
      Compares the specified Object with this Map for equality, as per the definition in the Map interface.
      Specified by:
      equals in interface Map<K,​V>
      Overrides:
      equals in class Object
      Parameters:
      o - object to be compared for equality with this hashtable
      Returns:
      true if the specified Object is equal to this Map
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Map.equals(Object)
    • hashCode

      public int hashCode()
      Returns the hash code value for this Map as per the definition in the Map interface.
      Specified by:
      hashCode in interface Map<K,​V>
      Overrides:
      hashCode in class Object
      Returns:
      a hash code value for this object.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Map.hashCode()
    • computeIfAbsent

      public V computeIfAbsent(K key, Function<? super K,​? extends V> mappingFunction)
      If the specified key is not already associated with a value (or is mapped to null), attempts to compute its value using the given mapping function and enters it into this map unless null.

      If the mapping function returns null, no mapping is recorded. If the mapping function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and no mapping is recorded. The most common usage is to construct a new object serving as an initial mapped value or memoized result, as in:

       
       map.computeIfAbsent(key, k -> new Value(f(k)));
       

      Or to implement a multi-value map, Map<K,Collection<V>>, supporting multiple values per key:

       
       map.computeIfAbsent(key, k -> new HashSet<V>()).add(v);
       

      The mapping function should not modify this map during computation.

      This method will, on a best-effort basis, throw a ConcurrentModificationException if the mapping function modified this map during computation.

      Specified by:
      computeIfAbsent in interface Map<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - key with which the specified value is to be associated
      mappingFunction - the mapping function to compute a value
      Returns:
      the current (existing or computed) value associated with the specified key, or null if the computed value is null
      Throws:
      ConcurrentModificationException - if it is detected that the mapping function modified this map
    • computeIfPresent

      public V computeIfPresent(K key, BiFunction<? super K,​? super V,​? extends V> remappingFunction)
      If the value for the specified key is present and non-null, attempts to compute a new mapping given the key and its current mapped value.

      If the remapping function returns null, the mapping is removed. If the remapping function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and the current mapping is left unchanged.

      The remapping function should not modify this map during computation.

      This method will, on a best-effort basis, throw a ConcurrentModificationException if the remapping function modified this map during computation.

      Specified by:
      computeIfPresent in interface Map<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - key with which the specified value is to be associated
      remappingFunction - the remapping function to compute a value
      Returns:
      the new value associated with the specified key, or null if none
      Throws:
      ConcurrentModificationException - if it is detected that the remapping function modified this map
    • compute

      public V compute(K key, BiFunction<? super K,​? super V,​? extends V> remappingFunction)
      Attempts to compute a mapping for the specified key and its current mapped value (or null if there is no current mapping). For example, to either create or append a String msg to a value mapping:
       
       map.compute(key, (k, v) -> (v == null) ? msg : v.concat(msg))
      (Method merge() is often simpler to use for such purposes.)

      If the remapping function returns null, the mapping is removed (or remains absent if initially absent). If the remapping function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and the current mapping is left unchanged.

      The remapping function should not modify this map during computation.

      This method will, on a best-effort basis, throw a ConcurrentModificationException if the remapping function modified this map during computation.

      Specified by:
      compute in interface Map<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - key with which the specified value is to be associated
      remappingFunction - the remapping function to compute a value
      Returns:
      the new value associated with the specified key, or null if none
      Throws:
      ConcurrentModificationException - if it is detected that the remapping function modified this map
    • merge

      public V merge(K key, V value, BiFunction<? super V,​? super V,​? extends V> remappingFunction)
      If the specified key is not already associated with a value or is associated with null, associates it with the given non-null value. Otherwise, replaces the associated value with the results of the given remapping function, or removes if the result is null. This method may be of use when combining multiple mapped values for a key. For example, to either create or append a String msg to a value mapping:
       
       map.merge(key, msg, String::concat)
       

      If the remapping function returns null, the mapping is removed. If the remapping function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and the current mapping is left unchanged.

      The remapping function should not modify this map during computation.

      This method will, on a best-effort basis, throw a ConcurrentModificationException if the remapping function modified this map during computation.

      Specified by:
      merge in interface Map<K,​V>
      Parameters:
      key - key with which the resulting value is to be associated
      value - the non-null value to be merged with the existing value associated with the key or, if no existing value or a null value is associated with the key, to be associated with the key
      remappingFunction - the remapping function to recompute a value if present
      Returns:
      the new value associated with the specified key, or null if no value is associated with the key
      Throws:
      ConcurrentModificationException - if it is detected that the remapping function modified this map