Module java.base

Interface ExecutorService

All Superinterfaces:
AutoCloseable, Executor
All Known Subinterfaces:
ScheduledExecutorService
All Known Implementing Classes:
AbstractExecutorService, ForkJoinPool, ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor, ThreadPoolExecutor

public interface ExecutorService extends Executor, AutoCloseable
An Executor that provides methods to manage termination and methods that can produce a Future for tracking progress of one or more asynchronous tasks.

An ExecutorService can be shut down, which will cause it to reject new tasks. Two different methods are provided for shutting down an ExecutorService. The shutdown() method will allow previously submitted tasks to execute before terminating, while the shutdownNow() method prevents waiting tasks from starting and attempts to stop currently executing tasks. Upon termination, an executor has no tasks actively executing, no tasks awaiting execution, and no new tasks can be submitted. An unused ExecutorService should be shut down to allow reclamation of its resources.

Method submit extends base method Executor.execute(Runnable) by creating and returning a Future that can be used to cancel execution and/or wait for completion. Methods invokeAny and invokeAll perform the most commonly useful forms of bulk execution, executing a collection of tasks and then waiting for at least one, or all, to complete. (Class ExecutorCompletionService can be used to write customized variants of these methods.)

The Executors class provides factory methods for the executor services provided in this package.

Usage Examples

Here is a sketch of a network service in which threads in a thread pool service incoming requests. It uses the preconfigured Executors.newFixedThreadPool(int) factory method:
 
 class NetworkService implements Runnable {
   private final ServerSocket serverSocket;
   private final ExecutorService pool;

   public NetworkService(int port, int poolSize)
       throws IOException {
     serverSocket = new ServerSocket(port);
     pool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(poolSize);
   }

   public void run() { // run the service
     try {
       for (;;) {
         pool.execute(new Handler(serverSocket.accept()));
       }
     } catch (IOException ex) {
       pool.shutdown();
     }
   }
 }

 class Handler implements Runnable {
   private final Socket socket;
   Handler(Socket socket) { this.socket = socket; }
   public void run() {
     // read and service request on socket
   }
 }
The following method shuts down an ExecutorService in two phases, first by calling shutdown to reject incoming tasks, and then calling shutdownNow, if necessary, to cancel any lingering tasks:
 
 void shutdownAndAwaitTermination(ExecutorService pool) {
   pool.shutdown(); // Disable new tasks from being submitted
   try {
     // Wait a while for existing tasks to terminate
     if (!pool.awaitTermination(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS)) {
       pool.shutdownNow(); // Cancel currently executing tasks
       // Wait a while for tasks to respond to being cancelled
       if (!pool.awaitTermination(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS))
           System.err.println("Pool did not terminate");
     }
   } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
     // (Re-)Cancel if current thread also interrupted
     pool.shutdownNow();
     // Preserve interrupt status
     Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
   }
 }

Memory consistency effects: Actions in a thread prior to the submission of a Runnable or Callable task to an ExecutorService happen-before any actions taken by that task, which in turn happen-before the result is retrieved via Future.get().

Since:
1.5
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type
    Method
    Description
    boolean
    awaitTermination​(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
    Blocks until all tasks have completed execution after a shutdown request, or the timeout occurs, or the current thread is interrupted, whichever happens first.
    default void
    Initiates an orderly shutdown in which previously submitted tasks are executed, but no new tasks will be accepted.
    <T> List<Future<T>>
    invokeAll​(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks)
    Executes the given tasks, returning a list of Futures holding their status and results when all complete.
    default <T> List<Future<T>>
    invokeAll​(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks, boolean waitAll)
    Executes the given tasks, returning a list of Futures holding their status and results when all complete or are cancelled.
    <T> List<Future<T>>
    invokeAll​(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks, long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
    Executes the given tasks, returning a list of Futures holding their status and results when all complete or the timeout expires, whichever happens first.
    <T> T
    invokeAny​(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks)
    Executes the given tasks, returning the result of one that has completed successfully (i.e., without throwing an exception), if any do.
    <T> T
    invokeAny​(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks, long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
    Executes the given tasks, returning the result of one that has completed successfully (i.e., without throwing an exception), if any do before the given timeout elapses.
    boolean
    Returns true if this executor has been shut down.
    boolean
    Returns true if all tasks have completed following shut down.
    void
    Initiates an orderly shutdown in which previously submitted tasks are executed, but no new tasks will be accepted.
    Attempts to stop all actively executing tasks, halts the processing of waiting tasks, and returns a list of the tasks that were awaiting execution.
    submit​(Runnable task)
    Submits a Runnable task for execution and returns a Future representing that task.
    <T> Future<T>
    submit​(Runnable task, T result)
    Submits a Runnable task for execution and returns a Future representing that task.
    default <T> Stream<Future<T>>
    submit​(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks)
    Submits the given value-returning tasks for execution and returns a lazily populated stream of completed Future objects with the result of each task.
    <T> Future<T>
    submit​(Callable<T> task)
    Submits a value-returning task for execution and returns a Future representing the pending results of the task.

    Methods declared in interface java.util.concurrent.Executor

    execute
  • Method Details

    • shutdown

      void shutdown()
      Initiates an orderly shutdown in which previously submitted tasks are executed, but no new tasks will be accepted. Invocation has no additional effect if already shut down.

      This method does not wait for previously submitted tasks to complete execution. Use awaitTermination to do that.

      Throws:
      SecurityException - if a security manager exists and shutting down this ExecutorService may manipulate threads that the caller is not permitted to modify because it does not hold RuntimePermission("modifyThread"), or the security manager's checkAccess method denies access.
    • shutdownNow

      List<Runnable> shutdownNow()
      Attempts to stop all actively executing tasks, halts the processing of waiting tasks, and returns a list of the tasks that were awaiting execution.

      This method does not wait for actively executing tasks to terminate. Use awaitTermination to do that.

      There are no guarantees beyond best-effort attempts to stop processing actively executing tasks. For example, typical implementations will cancel via Thread.interrupt(), so any task that fails to respond to interrupts may never terminate.

      Returns:
      list of tasks that never commenced execution
      Throws:
      SecurityException - if a security manager exists and shutting down this ExecutorService may manipulate threads that the caller is not permitted to modify because it does not hold RuntimePermission("modifyThread"), or the security manager's checkAccess method denies access.
    • isShutdown

      boolean isShutdown()
      Returns true if this executor has been shut down.
      Returns:
      true if this executor has been shut down
    • isTerminated

      boolean isTerminated()
      Returns true if all tasks have completed following shut down. Note that isTerminated is never true unless either shutdown or shutdownNow was called first.
      Returns:
      true if all tasks have completed following shut down
    • awaitTermination

      boolean awaitTermination(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException
      Blocks until all tasks have completed execution after a shutdown request, or the timeout occurs, or the current thread is interrupted, whichever happens first.
      Parameters:
      timeout - the maximum time to wait
      unit - the time unit of the timeout argument
      Returns:
      true if this executor terminated and false if the timeout elapsed before termination
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting
    • submit

      <T> Future<T> submit(Callable<T> task)
      Submits a value-returning task for execution and returns a Future representing the pending results of the task. The Future's get method will return the task's result upon successful completion.

      If you would like to immediately block waiting for a task, you can use constructions of the form result = exec.submit(aCallable).get();

      Note: The Executors class includes a set of methods that can convert some other common closure-like objects, for example, PrivilegedAction to Callable form so they can be submitted.

      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the task's result
      Parameters:
      task - the task to submit
      Returns:
      a Future representing pending completion of the task
      Throws:
      RejectedExecutionException - if the task cannot be scheduled for execution
      NullPointerException - if the task is null
    • submit

      <T> Future<T> submit(Runnable task, T result)
      Submits a Runnable task for execution and returns a Future representing that task. The Future's get method will return the given result upon successful completion.
      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the result
      Parameters:
      task - the task to submit
      result - the result to return
      Returns:
      a Future representing pending completion of the task
      Throws:
      RejectedExecutionException - if the task cannot be scheduled for execution
      NullPointerException - if the task is null
    • submit

      Future<?> submit(Runnable task)
      Submits a Runnable task for execution and returns a Future representing that task. The Future's get method will return null upon successful completion.
      Parameters:
      task - the task to submit
      Returns:
      a Future representing pending completion of the task
      Throws:
      RejectedExecutionException - if the task cannot be scheduled for execution
      NullPointerException - if the task is null
    • submit

      default <T> Stream<Future<T>> submit(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks)
      Submits the given value-returning tasks for execution and returns a lazily populated stream of completed Future objects with the result of each task.

      Invoking the stream's close method cancels any remaining tasks as if by invoking cancel(true) on each remaining task. In other words, for each remaining task that has already started, the thread executing the task (when known to the implementation) is interrupted in an attempt to stop the task. This may have no effect on implementations that do not use thread interruption to control cancellation, in which case close() will just close the stream. The try-with-resources construct may be useful to ensure that remaining tasks are cancelled when using short-circuiting stream operations.

      If a thread is interrupted while waiting on the stream for a task to complete then the remaining tasks are cancelled, as if by invoking cancel(true), and CancellationException is thrown with the interrupt status set. As with closing the stream, for each remaining task that has already started, the thread executing the task (when known to the implementation) is interrupted in an attempt to stop the task. This may have no effect on implementations that do not use thread interruption to control cancellation.

      API Note:
      This method is not atomic. RejectedExecutionException may be thrown after some tasks have been submitted for execution. This method makes a best effort attempt to cancel the tasks that it submitted when RejectedExecutionException is thrown.

      The following are examples that submit a collection of tasks. The first collects the results of the tasks that complete normally into a list. The second finds the result of any task that completes normally and cancels outstanding tasks by closing the stream.

       
           ExecutorService executor = ...
           Collection<Callable<String>> tasks = ...
      
           List<String> results = executor.submit(tasks)
                   .filter(Future::isCompletedNormally)
                   .map(Future::join)
                   .toList();
      
           try (Stream<Future<String>> stream = executor.submit(tasks)) {
               String first = stream.filter(Future::isCompletedNormally)
                       .map(Future::join)
                       .findFirst()
                       .orElseThrow();
          }
       
      Implementation Requirements:
      The default implementation submits the tasks for execution and returns a stream that is lazily populated when the tasks complete.
      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the values returned from the tasks
      Parameters:
      tasks - the collection of tasks
      Returns:
      stream of completed Futures
      Throws:
      RejectedExecutionException - if any task cannot be scheduled for execution
      NullPointerException - if tasks or any of its elements are null
      Since:
      99
      See Also:
      CompletionService
    • invokeAll

      <T> List<Future<T>> invokeAll(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks) throws InterruptedException
      Executes the given tasks, returning a list of Futures holding their status and results when all complete. Future.isDone() is true for each element of the returned list. Note that a completed task could have terminated either normally or by throwing an exception. The results of this method are undefined if the given collection is modified while this operation is in progress.
      API Note:
      This method is equivalent to invoking invokeAll(tasks, true).
      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the values returned from the tasks
      Parameters:
      tasks - the collection of tasks
      Returns:
      a list of Futures representing the tasks, in the same sequential order as produced by the iterator for the given task list, each of which has completed
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting, in which case unfinished tasks are cancelled
      NullPointerException - if tasks or any of its elements are null
      RejectedExecutionException - if any task cannot be scheduled for execution
    • invokeAll

      default <T> List<Future<T>> invokeAll(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks, boolean waitAll) throws InterruptedException
      Executes the given tasks, returning a list of Futures holding their status and results when all complete or are cancelled. Future.isDone() is true for each element of the returned list. The results of this method are undefined if the given collection is modified while this operation is in progress.

      The parameter waitAll determines if this method should wait for unfinished tasks to complete when any task completes with an exception or error. If true, this method waits until all tasks have completed or the current thread is interrupted. If false, this method stops waiting when a task completes with an exception or error, in which case it cancels any unfinished tasks as if by invoking cancel(true).

      Implementation Requirements:
      The default implementation submits the tasks for execution. If waitAll is true then it waits until all tasks complete or the current thread is interrupted. If false, it waits until all tasks complete normally, a task completes with an exception or error, or the current thread is interrupted.
      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the values returned from the tasks
      Parameters:
      tasks - the collection of tasks
      waitAll - true to wait for all tasks to complete, false to cancel unfinished tasks when any task fails
      Returns:
      a list of Futures representing the tasks, in the same sequential order as produced by the iterator for the given task list, each of which has completed
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting, in which case unfinished tasks are cancelled
      NullPointerException - if tasks or any of its elements are null
      RejectedExecutionException - if any task cannot be scheduled for execution
      Since:
      99
    • invokeAll

      <T> List<Future<T>> invokeAll(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks, long timeout, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException
      Executes the given tasks, returning a list of Futures holding their status and results when all complete or the timeout expires, whichever happens first. Future.isDone() is true for each element of the returned list. Upon return, tasks that have not completed are cancelled. Note that a completed task could have terminated either normally or by throwing an exception. The results of this method are undefined if the given collection is modified while this operation is in progress.
      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the values returned from the tasks
      Parameters:
      tasks - the collection of tasks
      timeout - the maximum time to wait
      unit - the time unit of the timeout argument
      Returns:
      a list of Futures representing the tasks, in the same sequential order as produced by the iterator for the given task list. If the operation did not time out, each task will have completed. If it did time out, some of these tasks will not have completed.
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting, in which case unfinished tasks are cancelled
      NullPointerException - if tasks, any of its elements, or unit are null
      RejectedExecutionException - if any task cannot be scheduled for execution
    • invokeAny

      <T> T invokeAny(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks) throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException
      Executes the given tasks, returning the result of one that has completed successfully (i.e., without throwing an exception), if any do. Upon normal or exceptional return, tasks that have not completed are cancelled. The results of this method are undefined if the given collection is modified while this operation is in progress.
      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the values returned from the tasks
      Parameters:
      tasks - the collection of tasks
      Returns:
      the result returned by one of the tasks
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting
      NullPointerException - if tasks or any element task subject to execution is null
      IllegalArgumentException - if tasks is empty
      ExecutionException - if no task successfully completes
      RejectedExecutionException - if tasks cannot be scheduled for execution
    • invokeAny

      <T> T invokeAny(Collection<? extends Callable<T>> tasks, long timeout, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException
      Executes the given tasks, returning the result of one that has completed successfully (i.e., without throwing an exception), if any do before the given timeout elapses. Upon normal or exceptional return, tasks that have not completed are cancelled. The results of this method are undefined if the given collection is modified while this operation is in progress.
      Type Parameters:
      T - the type of the values returned from the tasks
      Parameters:
      tasks - the collection of tasks
      timeout - the maximum time to wait
      unit - the time unit of the timeout argument
      Returns:
      the result returned by one of the tasks
      Throws:
      InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting
      NullPointerException - if tasks, or unit, or any element task subject to execution is null
      TimeoutException - if the given timeout elapses before any task successfully completes
      ExecutionException - if no task successfully completes
      RejectedExecutionException - if tasks cannot be scheduled for execution
    • close

      default void close()
      Initiates an orderly shutdown in which previously submitted tasks are executed, but no new tasks will be accepted. This method waits until all tasks have completed execution.

      If interrupted while waiting, this method stops all executing tasks as if by invoking shutdownNow(). It then continues to wait until all actively executing tasks have completed. Tasks that were awaiting execution are not executed. The interrupt status will be re-asserted before this method returns.

      If already terminated, invoking this method has no effect.

      Specified by:
      close in interface AutoCloseable
      Implementation Requirements:
      The default implementation invokes shutdown() and waits for tasks to complete execution with awaitTermination.
      Throws:
      SecurityException - if a security manager exists and shutting down this ExecutorService may manipulate threads that the caller is not permitted to modify because it does not hold RuntimePermission("modifyThread"), or the security manager's checkAccess method denies access.
      Since:
      99